Child Development & Phonological Development Organizing Sounds Discussion
Analyzing Gianna’s level of phonological and lexical development
Use evidence from Gianna’s speech sample at the end of the assignment instructions to answer the following questions. Answers to the 4 questions should be reported in a single document. Look the sample assignment for reference. Using the same words and sentences from the sample assignment (even if substituting numbers and examples) will be considered plagiarism.
1. In what stage of phonological development is Gianna in? That is, is she (a) in the pre-linguistic speech sound development stage? (b) Or in the first words stage? (c) Or in the stage characterized by phonological processes? (d) Or in the period of phonetic inventory completion? (e) Or in the stage of advanced phonology? Justify your answer by giving her pronunciation accuracy (in %).
2. Describe at least 4 of Gianna’s phonological processes. Provides different examples for each.
3. Does Gianna use words referentially (as adults) or are there some context-bound words, over- and under-extensions? Define each of these and give examples from the sample. Show that you can identify nouns, verbs and adjectives.
4. Calculate the sample’s lexical diversity and discuss whether there are more nouns, verbs or adjectives in the sample. Use the document titled “Grammar Charts” to get help on how to identify nouns, verbs and adjectives.
ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS, SAMPLE ASSIGNMENT, GRAMMAR CHARTS, GUIDELINES FOR CODING SPEECH SAMPLES ALL PROVIDED TO HELP COMPLETE THE ASSIGNMENT
Look at important tips provided in the assignment insturctions file.CHDV4920 ASSIGNMENT 1 (15 pt.) – Analyzing Gianna’s level of phonological and lexical development Use evidence from Gianna’s speech sample at the end of this document to answer the following questions. Answers to the 4 questions should be reported in a single document and submitted on Canvas by 11:59 p.m. on 3/12/2021. See the sample assignment for reference. Using the same words and sentences from the sample assignment (even if substituting numbers and examples) will be considered plagiarism and will result in a 0 grade. PHONOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT 1. In what stage of phonological development is Gianna in? That is, is she (a) in the pre-linguistic speech sound development stage? (b) Or in the first words stage? (c) Or in the stage characterized by phonological processes? (d) Or in the period of phonetic inventory completion? (e) Or in the stage of advanced phonology? Justify your answer by giving her pronunciation accuracy (in %). 2. Describe at least 4 of Gianna’s phonological processes. Provides different examples for each. – IMPORTANT TIPS Do not just give age as your answer for the stage. Use Gianna’s pronunciation accuracy to justify your answer. Use the document titled “Guidelines for coding speech samples” to figure out how to calculate pronunciation accuracy. Provide specific examples from the transcription, accompanied by utterance numbers. Discuss your findings integrating information from the textbook and the lecture materials. LEXICAL DEVELOPMENT 3. Does Gianna use words referentially (as adults) or are there some context-bound words, over- and under-extensions? Define each of these and give examples from the sample. Show that you can identify nouns, verbs and adjectives. 4. Calculate the sample’s lexical diversity and discuss whether there are more nouns, verbs or adjectives in the sample. Use the document titled “Grammar Charts” to get help on how to identify nouns, verbs and adjectives. How to calculate the sample’s lexical diversity: a. Count all nouns, verbs and adjectives in the sample. b. For example, let’s say the child says: dog, blue, go, house, go, pretty, dog, big, cat, blue. c. Count all these words (only nouns, verbs and adjectives): 10 total words. d. Count all different words (no repetitions counted): dog, blue, go, house, pretty, big, cat =7 e. Divide the number of different words (7) by the number of total words (10) = 7/10 = 0.7 f. Ratios above 0.5 mean the vocabulary in the sample is varied. g. Ratios lower than 0.5 mean that the vocabulary is repetitive. h. A 0.7 ratio indicates that the child’s vocabulary in the sample is a varied. – IMPORTANT TIPS Give actual numbers of words. Do not just say ‘most words are nouns.’ Use the document titled “Grammar Charts” to get help on how to identify nouns, verbs and adjectives. Discuss your findings integrating information from the textbook and the lecture materials. Provide specific examples from the transcription, accompanied by utterance numbers. Rubrics for grading this assignment: Is the student’s analysis for phonological development accurate and complete with examples? Minimally – 1 point Partially – 2.5 points Fully – 5 points Is the student’s analysis for lexical development accurate and complete with examples? Minimally – 1 point Partially – 2.5 points Fully – 5 points Is the writing free of grammatical, spelling and punctuation errors and does it demonstrate effective communication? Minimally – 1 point Partially – 2.5 points Fully – 5 points TOTAL POSSIBLE POINTS: 15 Gianna’s Speech Sample Gianna is a 34-month-old girl and the youngest of four children. Her oldest brother is 14, and the one nearest in age to her is 10, and so she has many competent language users available to her. The family is Asian American; however, only English is spoken in the household as both parents are second generation American born Chinese. Gianna’s mother is a high school English teacher with a master’s degree, while her father is a USC graduate who manages several apartments and stays home with his daughter. The family can be considered middle class. Presently, Gianna is not attending preschool, but she will begin as soon as she turns 3. The recording, by a digital recorder, took place in Gianna’s home in order to maintain a comfortable, familiar atmosphere with the hopes that it would encourage the most natural responses from the child. The interview took place on a Monday afternoon while Gianna’s mother, father and one brother were at home, and it lasted for 45 minutes. The recording was then transcribed by the interviewer, using the following abbreviations to denote the participants: CHI (child), INT (interviewer), MOT (mother), DAD (father), and BRO (brother). /Slashes/ indicate phonological processes, that is, how the child actually pronounced certain words. Only 100 of the child’s utterances were transcribed for evaluation purposes. Mom, dad, and Tom (brother) are all at home preoccupied with their own activities. Gianna is eating a chicken drumstick by herself while watching TV. 1. CHI: What you doing? INT: I just wanna see you talk. MOT: What’s Tom doing? 2. CHI: Take a picture Tom. INT: No. 3. CHI: Yes. INT: I’m not taking pictures. I’m making a video. 4. CHI: I don’t /wan/ “want” /bideo/ “video.” INT: What’d you say? 5. CHI: I don’t /wan/ “want” /bideo/ “video.” INT: You don’t want video? 6. CHI: No. FAT: Where’s my handicap placard? 7. CHI: Some of my dad’s missing. INT: Some of your dad’s what? 8. CHI: Missing. INT: Missing what? 9. CHI: Be quiet /dere/ “there.” INT: Who? 10. CHI: You. INT: Why? 11. CHI: Leave me /lone/ “alone.” INT: You? 12. CHI: Yes. INT: Ok. I’m just watching TV. 13. CHI: You’re not. INT: Yeah. Gianna gets up from her seat and walks to get a better look at interviewer’s recording device. 14. CHI: Are you watching a /bideo/ “video?” INT: No, I’m making a video. Can you just eat your chicken? Hey, do you wanna go to school with Tom? Gianna shakes her head. Why not? 15. CHI: I’m not /bigga/ “bigger” yet. INT: What? 16. CHI: I’m not /bigga/ “bigger” yet. Gianna continues to eat the chicken and grimaces while chewing a piece. INT: Ok. Is that bone? 17. CHI: No. INT: You know what that’s called? 18. CHI: I /don/ “don’t” know. INT: That’s called ‘cartilage.’ Can you say ‘cartilage?’ 19. CHI: I’m eating it! INT: Cartilage? It’s yummy, huh? I like it. 20. CHI: Me too. INT: You know who else likes it? 21. CHI: Hm? INT: You know who else likes cartilage? Spartacus. (Spartacus is the dog.) 22. CHI: Yummy. Anymore? INT: Anymore cartilage? 23. CHI: Yeah. INT: You find it. 24. CHI: I /dink/ “think” /iss/ “it’s” in /hewe/ “here.” No! INT: Just eat it. Is it meat? Don’t eat the bone. 25. CHI: /Car der lidge/ “Cartilage!” INT: Good job. K, if it’s too hard, don’t eat it. Cartilage is soft. 26. CHI: Hm? INT: If it’s too hard, don’t eat it. Cartilage is soft. 27. CHI: /Iss/ “it’s” soft. INT: Ok. Only Sparticus can eat the bone. 28. CHI: I’m not eating /dis/ “this” one. 29. CHI: I’m /jus/ “just” /holdin/ “holding” /car da lidge/ “cartilage.” INT: Good girl. Father coughs in the next room. Are you still coughing like your dad? Gianna nods her head. What’s gonna make it better? 30. CHI: Juicy. INT: Tell your dad, ‘Drink juice.’ 31. CHI: He’s Coke /wid/ “with” /dat/ “that.” INT: He drinks Coke with that? 32. CHI: Yeah. INT: He’s never gonna get better. 33. CHI: If he drink lot of Coke, I… Hey, /get/ “guess” what? I found it! INT: What is that? 34. CHI: Mango. The child says “mango” but it’s actually a papaya. INT: No! That’s not mango. What did I teach you that was? 35. CHI: I’m eating mango!! INT: It’s papaya! Are you still hungry? 36. CHI: No. INT: But you still have meat. 37. CHI: I /don/ “don’t” want it. MOT: Let’s go wash your hands. Mother takes Gianna to wash her hands. 38. CHI: Hey! Tom is watching a /bideo/ “video” in his room! INT: He’s watching Spiderman. 39. CHI: I want to watch Cinderella’s /bideo/! MOT: We’ll do it later, OK? Gianna dries her hands and runs back out to the living room where her plate and juice remain at the table. 40. CHI: I /wan/ “want” some /fine/ “find” /da/ “the” bone. MOT: Oh, you found the bone? Gianna sips juice, runs to the sink, and spits it out. INT: Hey, mama’s gonna get mad you. 41. CHI: No, mama not. Gianna runs to her room and hides behind toy bins. 42. CHI: I /wan/ “want” Tom make my /seeket/ “secret” hide-out dark. INT: You want Tom to make your secret hide-out dark? Ask him again. 43. CHI: Tom! I /wan/ “want” you make my /seeket/ “secret” hide-out dark. INT: What’s the magic word? 44. CHI: Please, Tom. BRO: What? MOT: Can Auntie Carrie make it for you? 45. CHI: Yes. INT: Like this? Interviewer drapes blanket over bins. 46. CHI: Try /an/ “and” /fine/ “find” me. INT: I can’t make it stay. Wait. 47. CHI: Try /an/ “and” /fine/ “find” me! INT: I know where you are! Blanket falls off the toy bins hiding Gianna. 48. CHI: It fell down! It fell down! INT: Don’t move. Don’t move it. Gianna comes out from behind the bins with toy medical instruments. 49. CHI: Sick. INT: Who is? 50. CHI: You. INT: No. Gianna puts toys down and reaches to grab interviewer’s recording device. 51. CHI: Is /dat/ “that” your /cara/ “camera?” INT: Who is that? Interviewer points to camera screen capturing image of Gianna’s brother and shows Gianna. 52. CHI: I /don/ “don’t” know. INT: Who is that? 53. CHI: I /don/ “don’t” know. INT: Yes, you know who that is. Gianna continues to grab at camera while interviewer keeps it out of reach. 54. CHI: I know what’s to do! INT: You can’t. It’s your dad’s. You can’t touch it. Gianna runs towards her bedroom. 55. CHI: /Dat’s/ “That’s” my… /Dat’s/ “That’s” my police station. I can take you /dewe/ “there.” INT: Where is your police station? 56. CHI: /Pollow/ “Follow” me! INT: Where are you going? 57. CHI: /Goin/ “Going” to my police station! Interviewer inquires about a toy box nearby. INT: What’s inside there? You were gonna show me. 58. CHI: /Dat’s/ “that’s” your surprise storage. INT: That’s my surprise what? 59. CHI: Storage. INT: Storage. 60. CHI: Yes. INT: Where’d you get that? 61. CHI: /Fom/ “From” my room. INT: From who? 62. CHI: /Fom/ “From” my room. INT: My room? I don’t have a room here. BRO: Yeah, you do. Because you’re part of our family. 63. CHI: Ah… /Booga/ “Booger” family. INT: Booger family? What’s going on here? Gianna attempts to squeeze into the same seat as the interviewer. 64. CHI: Move it. INT: No, watch this. 65. CHI: I /don/ “don’t” want to watch. INT: Watch. Look at Tom. 66. CHI: What? INT: You see him? 67. CHI: Let’s, let’s, let’s close it because he’s not gonna watch. Gianna attempts to press button on interviewer’s camera. INT: No, I’m watching. 68. CHI: Can I play /wit/ “with” your phone? INT: No. Let me do this. 69. CHI: /Weady/ “Ready!” INT: I don’t have games. 70. CHI: I’m /jus/ “just” playing. INT: Ok, press that one. See and then the light comes on. 71. CHI: Uh, I want to /jus/ “just” work. INT: It doesn’t work. It’s just a phone. It doesn’t have games like mama’s phone. 72. CHI: Let me check /da/ “the…” Gianna wraps interviewer’s cell phone in a ToysRUs advertisement. INT: What? You wanna check the newspaper? 73. CHI: Wait. Wait. Wait. INT: What are you doing? What am I waiting for? Gianna puts the cell phone and advertisement on the table and runs to her mother in the kitchen. 74. CHI: Mama, can I have candy? MOT: No. 75. CHI: Why? 76. CHI: Wait. I /wan/ “want” Auntie Carrie to stop record /dis/ “this.” 77. CHI: Stop it. Gianna runs back to interviewer from the kitchen. 78. CHI: You have to come /wit/ “with” me to look it. 79. CHI: Come to look it. INT: Going to where? 80. CHI: Look it. INT: Look it? 81. CHI: No. We’s… We’re going to my Lookit’s house! INT: Your Lookit’s house? Father puts on a movie per brother’s request. INT: What are we watching? “Pitch Perfect?” 82. CHI: Mommy? 83. CHI: Can I have /pockorn/ “popcorn?” MOT: Yes. 84. CHI: Do you have Tom /bideo/ “video” of him doing /dis/ “this” taking picture of me? 85. CHI: Take it. INT: I have it on my phone. My old phone. 86. CHI: Where your /ole/ “old” phone? INT: At my house. Gianna is fixated on the movie playing and sings along with the introduction. 87. CHI: Blah blah rab da dab dab da! 88. CHI: I’m a funny face! Brother and I laugh. Gianna dances to the music from the TV. 89. CHI: I’m a funny face! 90. CHI: I’m a funny face! 91. CHI: I’m a funny face! 92. CHI: I’m a funny face! Gianna eats the popcorn her mother brings her. 93. CHI: /Is/ “It’s” hard. 94. CHI: Bone! INT: No, no, no. Not bone. Kernel. Look it. She’s gonna sing. Ready? 95. CHI: One. Two. /Tree/ “Three.” Four. Five. Girl on TV throws up. 96. CHI: Ew! 97. CHI: No more? INT: No more throw up. 98. CHI: Watch. Gianna dances to the music from the TV and continues to eat her popcorn. 99. CHI: /Wan/ “Want” some? INT: No, thanks. Ok, maybe just one. You pick one. Thanks. MOT: Hey, Auntie Carrie said thanks. What do you say? 100.CHI: Welcome. THIS IS A SAMPLE ASSIGNMENT. COPYING OF ANY PORTIONS, INCLUDING SENTENCES OR SENTENCE FRAGMENTS, WILL BE CONSIDERED PLAGIARISM AND RESULT IN A ZERO GRADE. Student’s name:______________________________________________________________ Phonological development 1. Phonology is the foundation for all spoken languages, with each language having its own system of sounds. Initially, infants lack the ability to produce these sounds. Their large tongues and lack of teeth make specific sound production difficult (Hoff, 2009). As children’s oral structures grow, an ongoing process of practicing and learning how sounds are produced begins. Phonological processes are errors or sound substitutions that allow children to speak despite their inability to produce certain sounds. In particular, phonological processes are “systematic ways in which to alter the sounds of the target language so that they fit within the repertoire of sounds children can produce” (Hoff, 2009, p. 165). Of the 100 utterances, Lukas used phonological processes in 55% of the speech sample. Therefore, due to his heavy reliance on these processes, we can conclude that he is in the stage characterized by phonological processes, which is also characteristic of children between 18 months to 3-4 years of age. Since Lukas is 3, he falls into the appropriate stage for his age. 2. Among his phonological processes, Lukas used stopping 29 times; he had 19 occurrences of final consonant deletion, and nine gliding processes. Stopping was evident when the th sounds were being utilized, as seen in lines 21, 23, 46, 47, 52, 53, 54, 55, and 63, among others. In each of these utterances, the th was replaced with a d. For example, “Oh, look at this,” became “Oh, look at /dis/” (Utt. 52) and “There it is” was pronounced “/Dere/ it is” (Utt. 88). Stopping is a fairly common mistake seen in children’s speech, especially with certain phones. The majority of children don’t even begin to master the two th sounds until they are 4 ½ (Hoff, 2009, p. 168). As a 3 ½ year old, Lukas will most likely continue to utilize stopping until he is able to fully master the th phonemes. Final consonant deletion was the second most commonly used phonological process by Lukas, and was seen when he prematurely ended a word, like when “and” became /an/ (Utt. 87), “going” was turned into /goin/ (Utt. 17), and “want” was pronounced /wan/ (Utt. 58). Gliding was evident when Lukas said /weady/ for “ready” (Utt. 2) and /mowe/ for “more” (Utt. 99). We can expect that Lukas will continue to produce these errors since the sounds affected (/th/, /r/ and final consonants) are typically acquired late. Lexical Development 3. The impact of a child’s environment is particularly noticeable when reviewing lexical development. Such factors as birth order, socioeconomic status, personality traits, and the education level of the parents all play a role in what words the child will learn and eventually use. Lukas is fortunate to have parents from a higher socioeconomic status, for its effect on vocabulary development has been seen to “grow larger over time . . . [and] educated mothers talk to their children more” (Hoff, 2009, p. 202). Lukas used words referentially in the sample, meaning he was able to use the same label to refer to different items within the same category. For instance, he called “dog” not only his own dog (Ut.. 34), but also his neighbor’s dog (Utt. 54) and the dog he saw in a picture in the book he was reading (Utt. 77). However, he produced one example of an over-extension, when he referred to a cheetah as a “leopard” (Utt. 88), probably because he did not know the specific name for the cheetah and because cheetahs look very similar to jaguars. 4. Out of a total of 112 nouns, verbs, and adjectives, 0.3 or 30% were different words. This means that the sample’s lexical diversity was low and the vocabulary was repetitive. However, considering the repetitive nature of the game “hide and seek” that was being played, it is understandable. What is interesting to note is that Lukas produced only six adjectives, one of the most memorable was in response to the question “The lion can’t climb the chair?” to which he replied, “Yeah, he’s too fat” (Utt. 94). 51 nouns and 55 verbs were recorded, a nearly equivalent number. Nouns are generally more prevalent in children’s speech in contrast with verbs because “in learning nouns children need only learn the labels for meanings they already have, whereas in learning verbs children have to figure out how meaning is packaged by their language” (Hoff, 2009, p. 190). There were 51 nouns in the language sample, but of these, only seven were different, in contrast with his 19 different verbs out of the total 55. This shows that Lukas repeated nouns to a greater extent than he repeated verbs, lowering the overall lexical diversity of the sample. Again, it is believed that these results are due to the activities and games performed during the speech sample collection since, according to my observation, Lukas is a verbal child who hears and learns many words from his educated parents. 1 Coding a speech sample CHDV4920 You will apply this procedure to answer all your questions, not only for phonological development but also for lexical and morpho-syntactic development. So for example, you will need to code your sample when studying the frequency of phonological processes, the overall accuracy of pronunciation, the number of declarative, negative and interrogative sentences, etc. EXAMPLE. Say you’re studying the frequency of phonological processes (how common they are) and the child’s overall pronunciation accuracy (out of the 100 utterances, how many are pronounced in an adult-like manner?). To code the sample: a. code each utterance in your sample as ‘having phonological processes’ (PP) or ‘not having phonological processes’ (NoPP). Example: 1. CHI: 2. CHI: 3. CHI: 4. CHI: 5. CHI: 6. CHI: 7. CHI: 8. CHI: 9. CHI: 10.CHI: I like it. NoPP it’s /wed/. “red” PP Give it to me! NoPP No, no no!!!! NoPP /adain/. “again” PP I said /adain/! “again” PP Okay. NoPP I want /mowe/. “more” PP /mowe/ please! “more” PP /tank/ you! “thank” PP b. Count all the utterances with phonological processes: 6 out of 10 = 60% in the sample. → The child’s frequency of phonological processes is 60%. c. Count all the utterances without phonological processes (i.e. adult-like): 4 out of 10 = 40% in the sample. → The child’s pronunciation accuracy rate is 40%. d. Discuss your results using notes from lectures and readings. You may plot these results in a figure. This document describes and provides examples of all grammatical categories, including nouns, verbs, adjectives, pronouns, adverbs etc. While you do not need to learn all the details about each category, this document can be useful to help you identify nouns, verbs and adjectives. NOUNS Simple Nouns Man, key, pencil, table, hope Complex Nouns Closed: swimsuit Open: high school Hyphenated: ex-wife Nouns Classes: Proper: Common: Collective: NonCount: Mrs. Ross, Chevrolet teacher, car jury, group sugar, sand Count: Gender: Abstract: Concrete: desk, bowl neuter: child sibling fear, love camera, pencil masculine: prince, gentleman feminine: queen, lady PRONOUNS Person Nominative Objective Possessive Reflexive 1st person singular I me mine myself 2nd person singular you you yours yourself 3rd person singular He, she, it Him, her, it His, her, its himself 1st person plural we us ours ourselves 2nd person plural you you yours Yourself 3rd person plural they them their themselves Indefinite Pronoun Relative Pronoun Interrogative Pronoun Demonstrative Pronouns All, anybody, anyone, anything, both, either, each Who, whoever, which, whom, whose, what whatever, that Who, what, where, when, how, which This, these, those, that Ex: Both are invited. Ex: I told you which one to read. Ex: Which do you prefer? Ex: Those are it. VERBS Main Verbs: describe an action or state of being Auxiliary Verbs: helping verbs Modal Auxiliary Verbs: refers to mood, intention, certainly, command Eat, walk, talk, sleep Shall, be, have, does, will Can, could, should, will, would Ex: Carla said she will lend me $5. BE VERBS Auxiliary-Copula Auxiliary-Helping Contracted She’s old. She’s looking. Uncontracted She is old. She is looking. Uncontractible She was old. She was looking. Verb Tense and Aspect Present: the action occurs now Past: the action occurred in the past Future: the action will occur in the future Simple I learn. I learned. I will learn. Progressive: ongoing I am learning. I was learning. I will be learning. Perfect: occurred before some other action. I have learned. I had learned. I will have learned. Verb Forms Voice Active: I am eating an apple. Passive: The apple is being eaten by me. Number Indicative Imperative Subjunctive (Mood) (Mood) (Mood) Singular: Jeremy sleeps. Requesting info or facts Command or request Plural: Jeremy and Jessica sleep. That dog is a terrier. Go to bed! Improbable, doubtful wishes I wish I were a little bit taller. Verbals Infinitives Gerunds (usually have “to”) (“ing” verbs that become nouns) He is calling to tell us about the accident. Cleaning is not my favorite activity. Participles Present: He is cleaning. Past: He has cleaned. Verbs Transitive Intransitive (require an object) (don’t need an object) I cut something. I sleep. I smile. Adverbs Simple Compound Very, quite, rather, often, much, terribly Over there, very early, too much Adverbs Forms Positive Comparative Superlative (simple entity) (compares two entities) (compares three or more) Slowly More slowly, less quickly Most slowly, least quickly Adverb Types Affirmation Manner Place Negation Time Degree Number Reason Absolutely, certainly Quickly, slowly, well About, anywhere, around, behind No, not, never After, again, already All, almost, barely First, second, third Therefore, consequently, thus, because Conjunctive Adverbs Accordingly, additionally, also, besides, further, for example, however, in fact, then, therefore Adjectives Simple Compound Pretty, handsome, big Two words together: hardcover Hyphenated: low-income Two words: child development Descriptive Adjectives *describe a quality of what they are modifying. The big boy is sleeping. The boy is hungry. Limiting Adjectives/ Determiners *provide info on how much, how many, whose….. Proper Adjs. Definite/indefinite articles Indefinite Adjs. Cardinal Adjs. Ordinal Adjs. Demonstrative Adjs. Possessive Adjs. Noun Adjs. Interrogative Adjs. Spanish class The Both, several Two, three, four First, second, third That, those, that Her voice. Man’s coat. Wine glass Whose keys? Floor lamp Which do you like? An, a Adjectives Positive Comparative Superlative Smart Smarter Smartest Serious More serious Most serious Good better best Conjunctions *they connect ideas Simple And, but, so, yet *single words Compound Nevertheless, however, therefore Phrasal conjunction In other words, that is, even if *complete phrases *two words combined Conjunction Types Coordinating Correlative Subordinating *info on both sides of the conjunction is equal in weight or importance *sets of words that go together in pairs. * most frequently used-connect a main clause and a subordinate clause Ex: for, and, nor, but, yet, so Ex: both/and, either/or, neither/nor, whether/or, if/then Ex: because, when, if, since (FANBOYS) I went to bed because I was tired. Prepositions * create a relationship between its antecedent (A) and its object (O). Ex: The roof of the house. *can modify both nouns (over the house) and verbs (run over) *usually occur before the noun-but may occur at the end of a sentence. Prepositional Function Time Place At, between, during, for, since, through, until, within Against, among, around, beside, between, by, in, near, on Accompaniment Destination/purpose With, without For, to Means Possession Relation By, with, without of of Preposition Types Simple prepositions Of, between, on, near, in…… Compound prepositions Alongside, throughout, inside, underneath, outside, within, without…. Phrasal preposition According to, across from, along with, as for, as to, because of… Prepositional Verbs Prepositions that occur with a verb. Allow for, pick on, run into, attend to, look at, stand for, believe in, look for, stand up, drop in, object to, wish for…….
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