Change Research and Theory and Technology Integration
FEEDBACK: I. Literature review (ALL of the articles, in turn) II. Synthesis of the literature (compare all of the articles) III. Alignment with personal perspectives (one section, at the end, addressing the synthesis of all the articles together) PLEASE DON’T MISS THIS —> ;I recommend that you convert the scoring guide criteria to section headings in your paper. This will achieve two important benefits. First, it adds structure to your paper and helps YOU to make sure that you hit all of the scoring targets. Second, it signals to your professor that you have addressed each of the scoring criteria and it points the reader to the exact section of your paper that addresses each criterion. Without these “road signs,” your professors have to search for evidence of each scoring criterion; but the subheadings scream LOOK RIGHT HERE! FEEDBACK: I. Literature review (ALL of the articles, in turn) II. Synthesis of the literature (compare all of the articles) III. Alignment with personal perspectives (one section, at the end, addressing the synthesis of all the articles together) PLEASE DON’T MISS THIS —> ;I recommend that you convert the scoring guide criteria to section headings in your paper. This will achieve two important benefits. First, it adds structure to your paper and helps YOU to make sure that you hit all of the scoring targets. Second, it signals to your professor that you have addressed each of the scoring criteria and it points the reader to the exact section of your paper that addresses each criterion. Without these “road signs,” your professors have to search for evidence of each scoring criterion; but the subheadings scream LOOK RIGHT HERE! Running head: INNOVATION IN EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY Innovation in Education Technology 1 INNOVATION IN EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY 2 Introduction Change in the education sector cannot be avoided. However, it should be handled with a lot of precautions and professionalism to avoid failures and resistance. The use of technology in education sectors has been getting a boost from teachers, students, parents, and district education departments. Research has shown that innovation and use of technology in schools improve the quality of learning. There are several professional works of literature which have been written about ways of implementing technology and leading innovative changes in schools. Also, several experts have discussed how education theories support leading innovation in education technology. Lukacs, K., & Galluzzo, G. (2014). Beyond empty vessels and bridges: Toward defining teachers as the agents of school change. Teacher Development, 18(1), 100–106. In an article by Lukacs & Galluzzo (2014), the author discusses the role of teachers in implementing changes in the school. They state that implementing changes is one of the major challenges facing education systems. In their article which was published in 2014 in the journal of teacher development, Lukacs & Galluzzo state that resistance to technological change is common in schools and leaders of such change should play a role of taking all the stakeholders through change. They emphasize on the need to change leaders to involve teachers in the implementation of changes in schools. How the Perspectives Promoted in the Scholarly Literature align with my own I agree with the authors that teachers can play a big role in leading change in schools, and they should be the first ones to accept, adapt, and implement the change for others to follow. INNOVATION IN EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY 3 Therefore, while leading change, teachers should lead by example and encourage other stakeholders, including the students, to follow suit. Beabout, B. R. (2012). Turbulence, perturbance, and educational change. Complicity: An International Journal of Complexity & Education, 9(2), 15–29. In another article entitled turbulence, perturbance and education change which was published in 2012 in the international journal of Complexity & education Beabout discuss the importance of dealing with the turbulence that is caused by changes in schools to ensure that implementation of such changes is successful. Beabout states that change in instructional practices such as education should take an approach of involving working through the challenges of teaching with peers and expert. Therefore, leading a change in education sectors requires a close working relationship and collaborations with key stakeholders. Beabout (2012), state that approach to change is majorly concerned with the relationships, learning, and all contexts which are highly influential when it comes to education change. Beabout suggests that, when leading education change, more attention should be given to resolving disruptions instead of the disruptions themselves. Schools and classrooms are not new to disruptions, and the way such disruptive are dealt with greatly determines whether schools resist changes or not. He stresses on the need for innovation and education innovation leaders to put their focus on creating a school culture that embraces changes and foster trust. Several theories influence education change, two of which are chaos and complexity theories (Beabout, 2012). School reforms are complex and lead to chaos; therefore, complexity and chaos theories should be used by change leaders to acquire new knowledge on the dynamics of education change. He states that some of the factors which increase the chances of successful implementation of change include financial support, principled and visionary leadership, availability of resources for change and dissatisfaction with INNOVATION IN EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY 4 the status quo. Change leaders should put more focus on building the capacity of teachers, and other individuals involve in the implementation of the change in the schools. How the Perspectives Promoted in the Scholarly Literature align with my own The perspectives of Beabout align with mine. Just like him, I believe that leaders should focus on how to resolve disruption that is caused by change but not focusing on the disruptions. He states that change comes with lot disruptions something he refers to turbulence. Therefore, they should focus on dealing with turbulence to ensure successful change implementation in schools. Albury, R. (2014). On being’Head’-Reflections on leading an educational innovation involving computer technology. In Meeting at the Crossroads. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of ASCILITE, Melbourne (pp. 23-29). Another scholar also discusses the roles of leaders in technology change in education by the name Albury. He states that demand for innovation and use of technology in education sector requires a new set of approaches of leadership in change implementation. The assumption should not be made that instructional policies on the use of technology in learning are enough to encourage the use of technology in schools. Policies are not the only important thing in encouraging the adoption of learning technology. Instead, the implementation of the policies and effective leadership does. Albury state that leading education change, especially when it comes to implementation of technology is not easy. It requires shared ownership of the change and enthusiasm for the new learning technologies. Partnerships and a lot of collaborations will all the concerned parties are required. He adds that one of the issues which can cause delays in the implementation of technology in schools is a misunderstanding of the technology, the change INNOVATION IN EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY 5 process and deliberate undermining of roles of other stakeholders in the change process. Therefore, Albury states that when leading change, the change leader should deeply understand how the whole system works and the role of individuals in it to reduce the instances of misunderstanding during the implementation of a change (Albury, 2014). According to him, some of the leadership skills that a change leader in the education sector should possess include enabling others to act, promoting collaboration, strengthening others, inspiring a shared vision, model the way and set examples for others. Also, for leaders to successfully implement change in schools, they much motivate others, celebrate achievements, and recognize others for any small achievement. How the Perspectives Promoted in the Scholarly Literature align with my own After reviewing his article by Albury (2014), I have noted that his perspectives align with mine. I strongly believe that formulating policies for innovation in education technology is not enough to ensure a successful implementation of learning technologies in schools. Also, I believe that collaboration is important to the successful implementation of changes in schools. Albury (2014) states that partnerships and a lot of collaborations will all the concerned parties are required. He adds that the demand for innovation and use of technology in education sector requires a new set of approaches of leadership in change implementation Fernando, R., & Zachary, M.(2014). Leading School and Educational Innovation with the help of technology. Educational Technology-Saddle Brook then Englewood cliffs nj, 44(1), 5-27. Fernando and Zachary also tackled the issues of leading change in schools in their article, which was published in 2014. In their article, they discuss how school principles can lead to INNOVATION IN EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY 6 technology innovation in education. The authors note that for principles and school heads to lead innovation change in schools, they should view technology as something which supports school leadership rather than using their leadership position to introduce technology in schools. It is also necessary for change leaders to have enough skills and knowledge of the technology and be aware of the skills gaps and seek assistance. The authors state that effective change leaders must begin with the end of the program with the mind. They should be able to predict how the change will end. They should think of what the students should learn to be engaged. Therefore, school leaders who are leading innovation with technology should design and sustain the process in a way that the technology helps students to gain competencies that matter most to them in the current century (Fernando & Zachary, 2014). School leaders should identify instructional goals for the innovation and map out the processes which can the necessary processes which can help students achieve those goals. They continue to discuss leading changes in education in details and states that another factor to the successful implementation of technology in schools is thinking about and people. Fernando and Zachary (2014), notes that the main barriers to the implementation of technology in schools are the people but not the technology itself. Therefore, a school leader should focus on people when leading innovation in using technology in education. The authors state that to engage teachers, students, and other stakeholders in the change process, leaders should figure out the process which is critical to adopting change. They should adopt an open participation process because it empowers students and teachers. According to Fernando and Zachary (2014), open participation process is effective because modern students are likely to understand how the technology works without necessarily being formally introduced in schools. However, school leaders who have adopted the participatory approach should possess social and communication INNOVATION IN EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY 7 skills such as the confidence to openly admit what they do not know. Leaders need to demonstrate their commitment to learning and using technology so that they develop the competency to lead innovation using technology in education (Fernando & Zachary, 2014). They should also foster the culture of risk-taking and experimentation to build the spirit of innovation and entrepreneurship. The principals should learn to create a shared responsibility when overseeing and leading innovation in education technology. It is of great importance to engage teachers, students, parents, and even other stakeholders in the innovation and implementation of change. Fernando and Zachary (2014) add that having a shared vision by the teachers and students enables them to be committed to the change. Principles should also ensure that there is a support structure to ensure proper implementation of learning technologies. How the Perspectives Promoted in the Scholarly Literature align with my own Fernando and Zachary (2014) state that school leaders should focus more on understanding the process change rather than the technology and its capabilities. This perspective mimics my own. I believe that for change leaders to effectively lead innovation using education technology, they must first understand the goals which they would like to achieve and the process which they aim at improving and then determine how the technology can improve the effectiveness of learning. Fernando and Zachary also state that school change leaders should adopt open participation, and I also believe in this perspective. I strongly believe that people play an important role in the implementation of education changes. Implementing the perspectives of the authors would help ensure the inclusion of all-important stakeholders in the school change process. Therefore, the change is likely to be supported by all the stakeholders making it successful. INNOVATION IN EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY 8 Ouyang, J. R., & Stanley, N. (2014). Theories and research in educational technology and distance learning instruction through Blackboard. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 2(2), 161-172. In another article, Ouyang and Stanly discuss leading education change and theories that can be used to implement change in the education sector. Education theory has been growing fast and has become a fully developed subject in education. In this article, the authors discuss several theories that support leading innovation in education technology. Such theories are important because they ensure the effective implementation of technology. According to Ouyang & Stanly (2014), some of the educational theories which can be considered while leading and implementing technology in education are Constructivism, Behaviorism, Cognitivism, and Multiple Intelligence. They have been widely used to develop and utilize educational technology. Each theory belongs to a certain social domain, and it’s own the value of existence; however, no theory has been deemed to be the best (Ouyang & Stanly, 2014). Therefore, they emphasize that when implementing education technology, leaders should try and relate it to any of the education theories. According to Behaviorism theory, external stimulation greatly influences an individual’s learning behavior, and that punishments and rewards can influence and alter a person’s learning performance. Therefore, behaviorism theory should be applied when implementing educational technology. Ouyang and Stanly also state in their article that Cognitive theory deals with a mental process that is not seen in the problem-solving process and strategies for learning. The theory can be applied in education to help enhance the student’s ability to learn how to use technology in learning. On the other hand, the core concern of constructive theory is discovery learning. It helps in implementing innovation in education technology by letting the students learn by doing. INNOVATION IN EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY 9 The theory of diffusion of innovation explains how innovations can be received. In their article, Ouyang & Stanly (2014) discusses how the theory of diffusion can be used to implement educational technologies. It emphasizes training the receivers of the new technology for the successful implementation of technology. These views are confirmed Hosman & Cvetanoska (2014) that says that that diffusion innovation theory can be used to understand the process of change in education. The theory of diffusion theory enables leaders of educational change in technology to understand the capabilities of students and teachers’ receiving capabilities of the new technology so that they design and deliver effective training program (Ouyang & Stanly, 2014). In this article, I have learned of several educational theories and how they can be used to lead and implement innovation in education technology. How the Perspectives Promoted in the Scholarly Literature align with my own The perspectives of Ouyang & Stanly (2014) educational theories such as Constructivism, Behaviorism, Cognitivism, and Multiple Intelligence should be considered while leading and implementing technology in education aligns with mine. I strongly believe that educational theories are relevant to leading educational innovation with technology. Implementing their perspectives may lead to successful development and utilization of educational technology. Serdyukov, P. (2017). Innovation in education: what works, what doesn’t, and what to do about it? Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning, 10(1), 4-33. In this article, Serdyukov discusses the kinds of innovations in education that works and what does not work besides how to go about the implementation of education technology. He identifies barriers to educational innovations and offers possible directions for proper INNOVATION IN EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY 10 innovations. In his article, Serdyukov states that educational innovation is to matter that does not concern one person but a wide range of stakeholders which includes students, parents, educational administrators, policy makers, teachers and researchers (Serdyukov, 2017). He states that when innovation is hatched from the top, it can get stalled if it does not get full support of the stakeholders. Societal support is paramount for the success of innovation in education technology. Leaders should note that innovation in education requires patience, time, and enough space experimenting and tolerance for any uncertainties. Change in education is majorly threatened by lack of intolerance for uncertainties by teachers and administrators (Serdyukov, 2017). In the article, the author notes that teachers are afraid of implementing innovations in education to uncertainties that come with them. Therefore, individual leaders or school principals should be willing to take risks and create an innovative culture amongst the vital stakeholders. Serdyukov reiterates that leaders in educational technology change should be creative and be self-motivated to carry out their duty. These views are confirmed Hosman & Cvetanoska (2014) in an article where they discuss the role of teachers in innovation in education technology. They state that teachers are vital to educational innovation and the implementation of change in schools. They determine whether innovation in education technology succeeds or fails. Leaders must convince teachers that the change or technology to be implemented is useful. How the Perspectives Promoted in the Scholarly Literature align with my own The perspective of Serdyukov to a great extent aligns with mine. I view innovation in education as a complex process that involves many stakeholders that must work together to achieve. The author states that that educational innovation is to matter that does not concern one INNOVATION IN EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY 11 person but a wide range of stakeholders. Therefore, societal support is paramount for the success of innovation in education technology. Implementing his recommendations would ensure the involvement of all stakeholders in the education sector in change implementation. Conclusion I have noted that there are no conflicting ideas and views amongst the authors whose works I have reviewed. They concur that leading innovation in education technology is a complex problem that requires strong leadership. I agree with this view because the success of technological education heavily relies on leadership. A leader must lead with example and should have a share vision besides foster culture of innovation and show commitment to innovation. The authors also agree on the educational theories that influence the implementation of technology in education. For example, Hosman & Cvetanoska (2014) and Ouyang & Stanly (2014) agree that the theory of diffusion theory enables leaders of education to design and deliver an effective training program. INNOVATION IN EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY 12 References Albury, R. (2014). On being ‘Head’-Reflections on leading an educational innovation involving computer technology. In Meeting at the Crossroads. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of ASCILITE, Melbourne (pp. 23-29). Beabout, B. R. (2012). Turbulence, perturbance, and educational change. Complicity: An International Journal of Complexity & Education, 9(2), 15–29. Fernando, R., & Zachary, M.(2014). Leading School and Educational Innovation with the help of technology. Educational Technology-Saddle Brook then Englewood cliffs nj-, 44(1), 527. Hosman, L., & Cvetanoska, M. (2014). Technology, teachers, and training: combining theory with Macedonia’s experience. In Proceedings of the 4th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development (p. 20). ACM. Lukacs, K., & Galluzzo, G. (2014). Beyond empty vessels and bridges: Toward defining teachers as the agents of school change. Teacher Development, 18(1), 100–106. Ouyang, J. R., & Stanley, N. (2014). Theories and research in educational technology and distance learning instruction through Blackboard. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 2(2), 161-172. INNOVATION IN EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY 13 Serdyukov, P. (2017). Innovation in education: what works, what doesn’t, and what to do about it?. Journal of Research in Innovative Teaching & Learning, 10(1), 4-33.
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