Teaching Social Studies to Young Children Presentation

Teaching Social Studies to Young Children Presentation

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Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework Aligned to the 2014 Indiana Academic Standards Indiana Department of Education Family and Social Services Administration: Office of Early Childhood and Out of School Learning Early Learning Advisory Committee This page was intentionally left blank. Table of Contents Background and Acknowledgements Page 1 Introduction Page 3 English / Language Arts Foundations Communication Process Early Reading Early Writing Page 5 Mathematics Foundations Numeracy Computation and Algebraic Thinking Data Analysis Geometry Measurement Page 12 Social Emotional Foundations Sense of Self Self-Regulation Conflict Resolution Building Relationships Page 19 Approaches to Play and Learning Foundations Page 24 Initiative and Exploration Flexible Thinking Attentiveness and Persistence Social Interactions Science Foundations Physical Science Earth and Space Science Life Science Engineering Scientific Inquiry and Methods Page 29 Social Studies Foundations Self History and Events Geography Economics Citizenship Page 35 Creative Arts Foundations Music Dance Visual Arts Dramatic Play Page 41 Physical Health and Growth Foundations Health and Well-Being Senses Motor Skills Personal Care Page 46 Dual Language Learners Page 51 Supporting Exceptional Learners Page 53 Glossary of Terms Page 56 References Page 60 Appendix A Page 62 ISTAR-KR/2015 Early Learning Foundations Alignment Study Appendix B Classroom Planning Matrix Page 63 Early Learning Foundations Background History In the early 2000s, a White House initiative, Good Start, Grow Smart, called for each state to establish early learning frameworks around literacy and math. With the goal of guiding early childhood educators in understanding and implementing classroom practices that facilitate learning of essential skills and knowledge young children require to be prepared for Kindergarten, the Foundations to the Indiana Academic Standards (Foundations) were developed in 2002 with content for children three to five years of age. In 2004 and 2006, content for children from birth to age three was added. The Foundations were revised in 2012 to ensure alignment with the modified ISTAR-KR assessment tool, the Indiana Academic Standards (2007), and the Common Core State Standards. Each revision has provided direction and guidance to the field toward developmentally appropriate expectations that support young learners. 2015 Revision The 2015 revision was based on research, feedback from practitioners, and work from professionals with expertise in each specialized area. The revision addresses: • • • • • • • • • Alignment to the 2014 Indiana Academic Standards Recognition of the early learning continuum, birth to Kindergarten Utilization of the Foundations with the vertical articulations for the 2014 Indiana Academic Standards to view the early learning continuum from birth to third grade Identification of core foundations in each of the eight content areas Alignment to the ISTAR-KR assessment tool Addition of Approaches to Play and Learning Foundations Addition of Health Foundations Addition of WIDA Early English Language Development Standards Easy to use format Acknowledgements A large group of stakeholders worked from July 2014 to May of 2015 to inform and guide the revision process. In June 2015, Indiana’s Early Learning Advisory Committee approved the revision of the Foundations. The Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) provided technical assistance throughout the revision process. Dr. Diane Schilder served as a consultant to the Indiana Department of Education. Her guidance and feedback greatly contributed to the success of this project. CEELO also facilitated an external review by Dr. Shannon Riley-Ayers. Throughout the revision process, early learning guidelines of various states were referenced. The pioneering work of Connecticut, Georgia, Massachusetts, Maryland, and New Jersey was greatly appreciated. Public Comment An opportunity for public comment was provided and resulted in a review by 94 individuals. 1 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 The involvement, feedback, and contribution of the following groups are gratefully acknowledged: Early Learning Advisory Committee / Early Learning Advisory Committee – Child Development and Well-Being Workgroup / Indiana Association for the Education of Young Children – Higher Education Forum / Indiana Early Childhood Special Education Administrators / Indiana Professional Development Network The following individuals generously contributed their time, knowledge, and experience: Anita Allison / Indiana Association of Child Care Resource and Referral / Sarina Arens / The Learning Community / Bree Ausenbaugh / Indiana Department of Education / Beth Barrett / Office of Early Childhood and Out of School Learning / Beth Barnett / Bona Vista / Debbie Beeler / Hoosier Uplands Head Start / Mindy Bennett / Child Care Answers / Angie Blankenship / Wayne Township Preschool / Bruce Blomberg / Indiana Department of Education / Kim Bowers / Cumberland K3 Elementary / Melanie Brizzi / Office of Early Childhood and Out of School Learning / Kimberly Brooks / Fort Wayne Community Schools / Erica Brownfield / Buttons and Bows / Lisa Brownfield / Buttons and Bows / Ann Canter / MSD Perry Township / Audrey Carnahan / Indiana Department of Education / Rebecca Carothers / Ivy Tech Community College / Rhonda Clark / Office of Early Childhood and Out of School Learning / Theresa Clark / NEISEC / Dawn Cole-Easterday / Indiana Association for the Education of Young Children / Alice Cross / Indiana University / Robyn Culley / Early Head Start of Carey Services / Jill Davidson / Early Childhood Alliance / Rachel Davidson / Indiana Department of Education / Scott Deetz / Alexandria Community Schools / Patricia Dickmann / Ivy Tech Community College / Mary Jane Eisenhauer / Purdue University – North Central / Jim Elicker / Purdue University / Jeremy Eltz / Indiana Department of Education / Marta Fetterman / Indiana Association of Child Care Resource and Referral / Lenore Friedly / Child Care Answers / Rose Fritzinger / East Allen Community Schools / Christina Furbee / Indiana Department of Education / Laura Fulton/ Pipe Creek Elementary / Terry Green / Evansville School Corporation / Ashley Griffin / Buttons and Bows / Karen Guess / Plainfield Christian Church Preschool / Rachael Havey / Indiana Department of Education / Kimberly Hendricks / Workforce Development Services / Lisa Henley / Indiana Association for Child Care Resource and Referral / Teri Hornberger / Early Head Start – Head Start / Betsy Hull / GLASS / Cindy Hurst / Indiana Department of Education / Dana Jones / Indiana Association for Child Care Resource and Referral / Angi Keppol / Early Childhood Alliance / Renee Kinder / Indiana Association for Child Care Resource and Referral / Whitney Kinkel / Indianapolis Cooperative Preschool Council / Andrea Lakin / MSD Perry Township / Debora Lanier Benberry / Family Development Services / Ruthie McCray / Early Childhood Alliance / Tara McKay / Madison Consolidated Schools / Lanissa Maggert / Early Childhood Alliance / Ted Maple / Early Learning Indiana / Tutti Martz / RES Developmental Preschool / Mort Maurer / ECISS / Shelly Meredith / Early Childhood Alliance / Cheryl A. Miller / Indiana Head Start Association / Beckie Minglin / Indiana Head Start State Collaboration Office / Sharon Molargik / Garrett –Keyser-Butler Community Head Start / Michelle Moore / MSD Perry Township Early Childhood Academy / Karen Moore / SIEOC / Jennifer Newingham / Brownsburg Early Childhood Center / Anne Olson / MSD Wayne Township / Diana Parker / Wawasee Community School Corporation / Courtney Penn / Indiana Association for Child Care Resource and Referral / John Pennycuff / ICAP Head Start / Sierra Porter / Stay and Play Inc. / Teresa Porter / Stay and Play Inc. / Natalie Pugh / Chances and Services for Youth / Megan Purcell / Purdue University / David Purpura / Purdue University / William Reed / Indiana Department of Education / Jillian Ritter / Child Care Aware of America / Barbara Roberts / Fort Wayne Community Schools / Patty Rodda / Purdue University- Calumet / Ann Ruhmkorff / ProKids, Inc. / Jill Russell / Indiana Association for the Education of Young Children / Melissa Schneider / Chances and Services for Youth / Susan Smith / Shelbyville Central Schools / Rena Sterrett / Purdue University / Yvonne Swafford / Union County School District / Kim Swain / Early Childhood Alliance / Terri Swim / Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne / Alyce Thompson / Early Childhood Alliance / Angie Tomlin / Infant Mental Health / Amy Torres / Child Care Answers / Jared Totsch / Evansville School Corporation / Dawn Underwood / ELC-JCLC / Sue Victor / JESSE / Steve Viehwig / Riley Children’s Center / Dianna Wallace / Indiana Association for the Education of Young Children / Kresha Warnock / Ball State University / Nathan Williamson / Indiana Department of Education / John Wolfe / Indiana Department of Education / Kristine Woodard / North Webster Elementary / Julie Worland / Kokomo Schools Head Start The revision process was facilitated by the Indiana Department of Education, Office of Early Learning and Intervention. Charlie Geier / Director of Early Learning and Intervention Erin Kissling / Early Learning Specialist 2 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Introduction The Foundations include the following content areas: English/language arts, mathematics, social emotional skills, approaches to play and learning, science, social studies, creative arts, and physical health and growth. By outlining specific topics and indicators in each of these content areas, the Foundations support teachers, parents, caregivers, and other professional personnel as they develop appropriate experiences for young children. The primary audience for this framework is early childhood educators, program directors, school administrators, and college and university faculty. This core document was developed for use in all types of early childhood programs. Guidance and support documents will be developed and released subsequently. Kindergarten Readiness Early learning experiences help a child become ready for Kindergarten. The Foundations show early educators the developmental progression that typically developing young children should experience as they grow toward Kindergarten readiness. In 2014, Indiana’s Early Learning Advisory Committee approved the following definition of Kindergarten readiness: “In Indiana, we work together so that every child can develop to his or her fullest potential socially, emotionally, physically, cognitively, and academically. Through growth in all of these domains, the child will become a healthy, capable, competent, and powerful learner.” Birth to Third Grade Continuum Research recognizes early learning as a comprehensive system, birth to age eight (third grade). During this crucial period of development, the foundations for future success are laid out. Strengthening the alignment between the birth to age five system and the Kindergarten to third grade system ensures children develop solid fundamentals in literacy, math, social emotional skills, as well as strong engagement in learning (The Pre-K Coalition Policy Brief, 2011). This approach allows for developmentally appropriate teaching at all age levels and leads to positive student outcomes. Embracing this continuum: • • • • • Provides equitable access and opportunity for all children Minimizes achievement gaps Maximizes individual pathways Provides continuity for children and families Engages families in children’s learning and development “School districts on the leading edge of the Birth through Third Grade movement have demonstrated unprecedented success raising the achievement of low-income students by developing coherent strategies focused on the early years of learning and development. These communities are not merely improving preschool. Rather, they are building aligned, high-quality early education systems” (Jacobson, 2014). Special Populations This revision of the Foundations specifically addresses two special populations, Dual Language Learners and Exceptional Learners. In order to provide high-quality, equitable early learning experiences, it is important to provide a responsive environment along with linguistically and culturally relevant instruction that allows all children to progress within the classroom. 3 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 In order to meet the language needs of Dual Language Learners (DLL), Indiana has adopted the WIDA Early English Language Development Standards (E-ELD). These standards are specifically designed to help support the unique needs of DLLs, ages 2.5 – 5.5 years, who are in the process of learning more than one language prior to Kindergarten entry. By utilizing these standards alongside the Foundations, a quality program honors the children’s home languages, embraces dual language development, promotes family and community engagement, and builds partnerships to support young, Dual Language Learners. Additional information addressing DLLs can be located on page 51. More resources can be found at www.doe.in.gov/elme and www.wida.us/EarlyYears. Exceptional Learners are children who enter the classroom with a range of developmental, language, behavioral, and medical needs. Exceptional Learners should be included in classrooms with typically developing peers. In inclusion classroom environments, teachers can support the needs of all children through differentiated instruction. Exceptional Learners may attend developmental preschools offered by their local school corporation. Developmental preschools should use the Foundations to set expectations for learning. Specific information that addresses Exceptional Learners is on page 53. Additional information on Exceptional Learners can be found at http://www.doe.in.gov/specialed. Purpose Indiana’s early learning development framework, the Foundations, is aligned to the 2014 Indiana Academic Standards. This framework provides core foundations and skills that children are to achieve at various ages. The Foundations create common language and expectations for the early childhood field. Effective implementation of the Foundations will lead to desired student outcomes. The Foundations are not a curriculum, a lesson plan, or an assessment tool. Programs must select a curriculum based on their philosophy of how children learn. Curricula contain both content that children should learn and methods to teach the content. Lesson plans describe how the content is conveyed to children, and assessments evaluate children’s acquisition of the content. In order to drive continuous improvement, the Foundations should be regularly utilized to evaluate a program’s curricula for strengths and weaknesses. From Kindergarten through twelfth grade, academic standards have been established to promote excellence and equity in education. Excellence in education is a predictor of future success. K-12 academic standards represent the essential content every student needs in order to have a basis for understanding a subject area. The Foundations include concepts for children’s development and address skills and competencies that children are to achieve from birth to age five. Vertical articulations have been established for the 2014 Indiana Academic Standards. By utilizing these vertical articulations, one can see the continuum of development for children through the elementary years. Understanding the developmental progression gives early educators the ability to individualize instruction and experiences to advance each child’s development and learning. Families Children develop in the context of their environments, which include family, culture, and community. The family plays the most critical role in a child’s development. It is essential that early childhood professionals respect the role of the child’s family in the educational journey. A wide body of research supports the benefits of family-school partnerships. Successful partnerships with families support and sustain common goals for children. Early childhood professionals have the opportunity to connect families to their children’s learning. The Foundations should serve as a resource for early childhood professionals to inform families of appropriate developmental expectations. 4 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 English / Language Arts Language and Literacy Perhaps the most significant accomplishment a child makes during the first five years of life is acquiring language and using it to communicate. Infants first begin to communicate through crying, body movements, gestures, and facial expressions. As babies grow into toddlers and preschoolers, they attain a vocabulary of hundreds of words, and they learn how to use them to get what they need or want, to express their feelings, or to simply make conversation. While children do have the predisposition to learn languages, this does not happen without external intervention and support. Adults play a vital and irreplaceable role in a young child’s speech development and literacy knowledge. Frequent interactions with others, as well as providing opportunities to use (and witness the use of) written language in daily life, enable children to become competent readers, writers, speakers, and listeners. Young children must have the opportunity to do more than simply “learn to read and write.” They need adults who provide experiences that make literacy enjoyable. Children should develop skills, but should also have the disposition to become readers and writers. They must desire books. They must love words. Adults can help make this happen by making language pleasurable through reading aloud, singing songs, reciting playful poetry, and exposing language for what it is – an important and enjoyable part of our world. Research has demonstrated that children that have foundational skills with print, books, the purposes of writing, listening, and speaking will be ready to benefit from reading instruction in school, learn to read sooner, and will be better readers than children with fewer of these skills (NELP, 2008; Whitehurst & Longman, 1998). 5 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 English/Language Arts Foundations English/Language Arts Foundation 1: Communication Process Early learners develop foundational skills to communicate effectively for a variety of purposes. English/Language Arts Foundation 2: Early Reading Early learners develop foundational skills in understanding alphabet awareness, phonological awareness, concepts of print, and comprehension. English/Language Arts Foundation 3: Early Writing Early learners develop foundational skills in mechanics of writing, ability to tell a story, and write for a variety of purposes. Guide to Using the Foundations Each foundation has been broken down into topics. Each topic has particular concepts or skills that serve as indicators of a child’s developmental progress through the age ranges. While the indicators articulate expectations for early learning, they are not exhaustive and do not prescribe a singular pathway of helping children arrive at developmental milestones. To assist with the navigation of this document, a model of the format is outlined below. Foundation: The essential concepts and skills early learners should know or demonstrate in a particular developmental area. TOPIC: A subcategory of essential concepts and skills early learners should know and/or demonstrate under a particular foundation. Age Range: Infant, Younger Toddler, Older Toddler, Younger Preschool, Older Preschool While age ranges have been identified for organizational purposes, it is essential to remember every child develops at his/her own pace and may obtain a goal outside of the recommended time frame. Indicators: Competencies, concepts, skills, and/or actions that show a child is progressing toward Kindergarten readiness. Utilizing current research and knowledge of early learning and development, work groups across Indiana generated the indicators. The indicators are not an exhaustive list, but rather a guide to demonstrate the progression of essential competencies. Children will exhibit various skills that indicate their acquisition of a particular competency. 6 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Kindergarten Standard Indiana Academic Standard for Kindergarten: Outlines what a child should know at the end of Kindergarten. English/Language Arts Foundation 1: Communication Process Early learners develop foundational skills to communicate effectively for a variety of purposes. ELA1.1: Demonstrate receptive communication Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Demonstrate continual growth in understanding increasingly complex and varied vocabulary Respond to words or gestures Recognize familiar objects, people, and voices Respond to simple statements, requests, and/or gestures Orient to sounds in the environment Respond to simple sentences, phrases, gestures and/or actions Follow simple one-step directions Respond to complex gestures and/or actions to communicate (such as comforting others who are crying) Listen to and follow multi-step directions with adult support Listen to and follow multi-step directions Kindergarten Standard K.W.5: With support, build understanding of a topic using various sources. Identify relevant pictures, charts, gradeappropriate texts, personal experiences, or people as sources of information on a topic. K.RV.1: Use words, phrases, and strategies acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to literature and nonfiction texts to build and apply vocabulary. ELA1.2: Demonstrate expressive communication Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Demonstrate continual growth in increasingly varied and complex vocabulary Use facial expressions to communicate Use gestures to clarify communication Use gestures and actions to communicate Use simple vocalizations to communicate Use single words or simple phrases Use simple phrases or simple sentences Use expanded sentences Use complex sentences Talk about past, present, and future events Describe activities and experiences with detail Describe activities, experiences, and stories with expanded detail Express sounds and patterns of home language Use complex gestures and actions to communicate Change word tense to indicate time 7 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Kindergarten Standard K.SL.2.4: Ask questions to seek help, get information, or clarify something that is not understood. K.RV.1: Use words, phrases, and strategies acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to literature and nonfiction texts to build and apply vocabulary. English/Language Arts Foundation 1: Communication Process Early learners develop foundational skills to communicate effectively for a variety of purposes. ELA1.3: Demonstrate ability to engage in conversations Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Jointly attend to an object, event, or person Demonstrate intent of communicating with others Take turns in a conversation Respond to a request for clarification Younger Preschool Older Preschool Answer questions posed by adults or peers Ask questions for understanding and clarity Make on topic comments Stay on topic in twoway conversation with others Stay on topic in twoway conversation that involves multiple turns Communicate actively in group activities Kindergarten Standard K.SL.1: Listen actively and communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes. K.SL.2.1: Participate in collaborative conversations about grade-appropriate topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups. K.SL.3.2: Ask appropriate questions about what a speaker says. K.SL.2.5: Continue a conversation through multiple exchanges. K.SL.2.3: Listen to others, take turns speaking, and add one’s own ideas to small group discussions or tasks. 8 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 English/Language Arts Foundation 2: Early Reading Early learners develop foundational skills in understanding alphabet awareness, phonological awareness, concepts of print, and comprehension. ELA2.1: Demonstrate awareness of the alphabet Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Distinguish words from pictures Recognize and identify some frequently occurring letters in context Recognize and identify some uppercase and a few lowercase letters Recognize and identify most uppercase and some lowercase letters Recognize symbols have meaning Kindergarten Standard K.RF.2.4: Identify and name all uppercase (capital) and lowercase letters of the alphabet. Recognize own name in print ELA2.2: Demonstrate phonological awareness Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Orient to sounds in the environment Discriminate sounds in the environment Older Preschool Demonstrate basic knowledge of letter-sound correspondence Begin to engage in word and sound play with adults Distinguish between words that contain similar-sounding phonemes (pig-jig, catmat) 9 Younger Preschool Engage in rhyming games and songs; can complete a familiar rhyme Identify rhyming words in spoken language Make rhymes to simple words Orally blend and segment familiar compound words, with modeling and support Identify, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words with modeling and support Demonstrate awareness of sounds as separate units Isolate the initial sound in some words The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Kindergarten Standard K.RF.3.1: Identify and produce rhyming words. K.RF.3.2: Orally pronounce, blend, and segment words into syllables. K.RF.3.3: Orally blend the onset (the initial sound) and the rime (the vowel and ending sound) in words. K.RF.4.5: Identify similarities and differences in words (e.g., word endings, onset and rime) when spoken or written. English/Language Arts Foundation 2: Early Reading Early learners develop foundational skills in understanding alphabet awareness, phonological awareness, concepts of print, and comprehension. ELA2.3: Demonstrate awareness and understanding of concepts of print Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Kindergarten Standard Look at books Bring a book to adult to read Recognize familiar books by cover Look at a book independently Recite parts of well-known stories, rhymes, and songs Begin to understand that books are comprised of written words Know features of books such as title, author, and illustrator K.RF.2.2: Recognize that written words are made up of sequences of letters. Respond to and interact with read alouds of literary and informational text Understand that print carries meaning Hold books right side up and turn pages left to right Track words in a book from left to right, top to bottom, and page to page with adult support Younger Preschool Older Preschool Respond to songs Listen to repetition of familiar words, songs, signs, rhymes, and stories Pretend to read familiar books Attend to pictures and text for several minutes Hold books with two hands and turns pages K.RF.5: Read emergent reader texts, maintaining an appropriate pace and using self-correcting strategies while reading. K.RF.2.1: Demonstrate understanding that print moves from left to right across the page and from top to bottom. ELA2.4: Demonstrate comprehension Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Demonstrate interest in hearing a familiar story or book Show preference for familiar stories Show preference for familiar stories and report phrases of the story Respond and interact with stories (fictional and nonfictional) Answer simple questions about a story Answer questions about a story Attend to caregiver’s voice while being held and/or read to 10 With adult support, respond to simple questions about a story Tell a story from pictures in the book With adult support, retell familiar stories The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Retell familiar stories Kindergarten Standard K.RL.1: Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding. K.RL.2.1: With support, ask and answer questions about main topics, and key details in a text heard or read. K.RL.2.2: With support retell familiar stories, poems, and nursery rhymes, including key details. English/Language Arts Foundation 3: Early Writing Early learners develop foundational skills in mechanics of writing, ability to tell a story, and write for a variety of purposes. ELA3.1: Demonstrate mechanics of writing Infant Younger Toddler Use objects such as a crayon to make marks Older Toddler Explore drawing, painting, and writing as a way of communicating Imitate drawing marks or scribbling Make scribbles or shapes to convey meaning Imitate simple lines and shapes Younger Preschool Older Preschool Kindergarten Standard Recognize that drawings, paintings, and writings are meaningful representations Create letter like shapes, symbols, letters, and words with modeling and support K.W.2.1: Write most uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet, correctly shaping and spacing the letters of the words. Copy simple lines and shapes Create a simple picture Experiment with a variety of writing tools, materials, and surfaces Use writing tools with adult support Copy more complex lines, shapes, and some letters Use writing tools K.W.2.2: Write by moving from left to right and top to bottom. K.W.3.3: Use words and pictures to narrate a single event or simple story, arranging ideas in order. K.W.4: With support, apply the writing process to revise writing by adding simple details; review (edit) writing for format and conventions. ELA3.2: Demonstrate ability to communicate a story Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool See expressive communication skills See expressive communication skills Draw pictures and scribble to generate and express ideas Create writing with the intent of communicating Dictate a story for an adult to write Use pictures, letters, and symbols to communicate a story Older Preschool Dictate a story that demonstrates simple details and narrative structure Use letters, symbols, and words to share an idea with someone Use writing to label drawings 11 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Kindergarten Standard K.W.1: Write for specific purposes and audiences. K.W.3.3: Use words and pictures to narrate a single event or simple story, arranging ideas in order. K.W.4: With support, apply the writing process to revise writing by adding simple details; review (edit) writing for format and conventions. Mathematics Mathematics helps children survey their environment and start to form a sense of order. This beginning sense of order is of primary importance in constructing a solid foundation for future success. Children’s mathematical development is nourished by everyday play activities and exploration of the world around them. Adults can support the development of mathematics by incorporating math into everyday activities. Mathematics is more than counting and recognizing numbers. It involves learning about heavy and light, big and small, and long and short. Math also involves learning about shapes (circle, square, rectangle), recognizing patterns (blue-yellow-blueyellow), and comparing quantities (which is more and which is less). Using math words around young children helps them begin to understand math concepts. Math must be connected to children’s lives. Opportunities for “math talk” are readily available throughout a typical day. There is no need to drill children with flashcards or do worksheets to help them learn math. Learning math in contrived situations results in rote learning without understanding. This does not promote the “spirit of mathematics.” Math should be integrated into routine activities that are connected to everyday life. Providing daily opportunities for problem solving, reasoning, communication, connections, and representations make it possible for young children to learn the content of math. These processes develop over time with the help of adults who connect math to everyday activities. Connecting mathematics to other areas of learning such as music, art, and science also enhances both the mathematical concepts and the additional subject. When adults communicate and work with young children to enhance their knowledge of mathematics, the most important attribute they can bring with their solid foundation of skills is a positive disposition. A positive attitude toward mathematics and mathematical learning begins in early childhood. Young children are curious, independent, energetic, and eager to learn new things. This makes them excellent candidates for acquiring math concepts that will form a working foundation for more formal math learning in Kindergarten and the primary grades. Nowhere is it more true to say children learn by experience and discovery than in acquiring math concepts. 12 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Mathematics Foundations Mathematics Foundation 1: Numeracy Early learners develop foundational skills in learning and understanding counting, cardinality, written numerals, quantity, and comparison. Mathematics Foundation 2: Computation and Algebraic Thinking Early learners develop foundational skills in learning and understanding mathematic structure and patterning. Mathematics Foundation 3: Data Analysis Early learners develop foundational skills in learning to understand concepts of classification, data collection, organization, and description. Mathematics Foundation 4: Geometry Early learners develop foundational skills in learning and understanding spatial relationships and shape analysis. Mathematics Foundation 5: Measurement Early learners develop foundational skills in learning and understanding concepts of time and measurement comparisons. Guide to Using the Foundations Each foundation has been broken down into topics. Each topic has particular concepts or skills that serve as indicators of a child’s developmental progress through the age ranges. While the indicators articulate expectations for early learning, they are not exhaustive and do not prescribe a singular pathway of helping children arrive at developmental milestones. To assist with the navigation of this document, a model of the format is outlined below. Foundation: The essential concepts and skills early learners should know or demonstrate in a particular developmental area. TOPIC: A subcategory of essential concepts and skills early learners should know and/or demonstrate under a particular foundation. Age Range: Infant, Younger Toddler, Older Toddler, Younger Preschool, Older Preschool While age ranges have been identified for organizational purposes, it is essential to remember every child develops at his/her own pace and may obtain a goal outside of the recommended time frame. Indicators: Competencies, concepts, skills, and/or actions that show a child is progressing toward Kindergarten readiness. Utilizing current research and knowledge of early learning and development, work groups across Indiana generated the indicators. The indicators are not an exhaustive list, but rather a guide to demonstrate the progression of essential competencies. Children will exhibit various skills that indicate their acquisition of a particular competency. 13 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Kindergarten Standard Indiana Academic Standard for Kindergarten: Outlines what a child should know at the end of Kindergarten. Mathematics Foundation 1: Numeracy Early learners develop foundational skills in learning to understand counting, cardinality, written numerals, quantity, and comparison. M1.1: Demonstrate strong sense of counting Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Repeat a movement like a clap Imitate verbal counting sequence not necessarily in order Count the number sequence 1-5 Count the number sequence 1-15 Count the number sequence 1-20 Count backward from 5 with adult support Count backward from 10 Recognize that the count remains the same regardless of the order or arrangement of the objects Recognize the last number name said tells the number of objects counted Line up or organize objects Begin to apply verbal counting sequence to objects in order to develop one-toone correspondence Apply one-to-one correspondence with objects and people Draw pictures, symbols, or use manipulatives to represent a spoken number 0-5 Identify, without counting, small quantities of items (13) presented in an irregular or unfamiliar pattern (subitize) Draw pictures, symbols, or use manipulatives to represent spoken number 0-10 Identify, without counting, small quantities of items (14) presented in an irregular or unfamiliar pattern (subitize) Kindergarten Standard K. NS.1: Count to at least 100 by ones and tens and count one by one from any number. K.NS.4: Say the number names in standard order when counting objects, pairing each object with one and only one number name and each number name with one and only one object. Understand that the last number name said describes the number of objects counted and that the number of objects is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted. K.NS.6: Recognize sets of 1 to 10 objects in a pattern arrangement and tell how many without counting. M1.2: Demonstrate understanding of written numerals Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Kindergarten Standard Identify numerals as different from letters or other symbols Begin to recognize that number symbols indicate quantity Match number symbols with amounts 1-3 Match number symbols with amounts 1-10 K.NS.3: Find the number that is one more than or one less than any whole number up to 20. Begin to recognize different number symbols indicate different quantities 14 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Name written numerals from 0-10 Write numerals 1-10 K.NS.2: Write whole numbers from 0 to 20 and recognize number words from 0 to 10. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0-20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects). Mathematics Foundation 1: Numeracy Early learners develop foundational skills in learning to understand counting, cardinality, written numerals, quantity, and comparison. M1.3: Recognition of number relations Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Explore objects one at a time Identify which is more Visually identify sets of quantities of large differences (using terms more and/or fewer) Indicate a desire for more Give more when asked Begin to develop the concepts of more and less Give all objects when asked Separate a whole quantity of something into parts Readily identify first and last Give some when asked Correctly use the words for comparing quantities Give the rest when asked Older Preschool Identify when 2 sets are equal using matching and counting strategies Begin to identify first and last Correctly use the words for position Separate sets of 6 or fewer objects into equal groups Compare the values of two numbers from 1 to 10 presented as written numerals Demonstrate the understanding of the concept of after Demonstrate the understanding of the concept of before The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Kindergarten Standard K.NS.10: Separate sets of ten or fewer objects into equal groups. K.NS.7: Identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group (e.g., by using matching and counting strategies). K.NS.9: Use correctly the words for comparison including: one and many; none, some and all; more and less; most and least; and equal to, more than and less than. Communicate that something is split in half Understand the basic concept of none 15 Younger Preschool K.NS.8: Compare the values of two numbers from 1 to 20 presented as written numerals. Mathematics Foundation 2: Computation and Algebraic Thinking Early learners develop foundational skills in learning to understand mathematic structure and patterning. M2.1: Exhibit understanding of mathematic structure Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Take away objects or combine groups when asked Describe that something was taken away Attend to a new object in a group of objects Identify that an object has been added to a group Begin to understand that numbers can be composed and decomposed to create new numbers Use understanding that numbers can be composed and decomposed to create new numbers in solving problems with quantities under five Younger Preschool Older Preschool Begin to make reasonable estimates related to quantity Kindergarten Standard K.CA.3: Use objects, drawings, etc., to decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, and record each decomposition with a drawing or an equation (e.g., 5=2 +3 and 5=4 +1). [In Kindergarten, students should see equations and be encouraged to trace them, however, writing equations is not required.] M2.2: Demonstrate awareness of patterning Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Show interest in visual, auditory, and tactile patterns Follow along and imitate patterns of sounds and movement Recognize natural patterns in the environment Clap or move to a beat Recognize daily routines 16 Verbally or nonverbally predict what comes next when shown a simple ABAB pattern of concrete objects Show greater recognition of daily routines Physically extend simple ABAB patterns of concrete objects to other concrete objects Begin to create and extend a new simple pattern Understand sequence of events when clearly explained The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Kindergarten Standard K.CA.5: Create, extend, and give an appropriate rule for simple repeating and growing patterns and shapes. Mathematics Foundation 3: Data Analysis Early learners develop foundational skills in learning to understand concepts of classification, data collection, organization, and description. M3.1: Demonstrate understanding of classifying Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Identify attributes of objects with adult support Identify similarities and differences in objects Sort, classify, and compare objects Explain simple sorting or classifying strategies Sort a group of objects in multiple ways Create and describe simple graphs Kindergarten Standard K.DA.1: Identify, sort and classify objects by size, number, and other attributes. Identify objects that do not belong to a particular group and explain the reasoning used. Mathematics Foundation 4: Geometry Early learners develop foundational skills in learning to understand spatial relationships and shape analysis. M4.1: Understanding of spatial relationships Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Explore how things fit and move Begin to combine shapes to make new shapes Complete lined tangram or pattern block puzzles using basic shapes Put object in, out, on, and off of other things Hide behind or between objects for play Complete basic shape interlocking puzzle with most pieces accurately in place with some assistance Use position terms such as in, on, and under Older Preschool Use position terms such as above, below, beside, and between Kindergarten Standard K.G.1: Describe the positions of objects and geometric shapes in space using the terms, inside, outside, between, above, below, near, far, under, over, up, down, behind, in front of, next to, to the left of and to the right of. M4.2: Exhibit ability to identify, describe, analyze, compare, and create shapes Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Match identical simple shapes Match similar shapes that are different sizes, and different orientation with a variety of twodimensional shapes Match similar shapes when given a variety of three dimensional shapes Start to identify the attributes of shapes Use the attributes of shapes to distinguish between shapes Use names of twodimensional shapes (e.g., square; triangle; circle) when identifying objects Differentiate two- and three-dimensional shapes (e.g., squares from cubes) Use informal language to describe threedimensional shapes (e.g., “box” for cube; “ball” for sphere; “can” for cylinder) 17 Older Preschool The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Kindergarten Standard K.G.2: Compare two- and three-dimensional shapes in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number sides and vertices/”corners”) and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length). K.G.4: Compose simple geometric shapes to form larger shapes (e.g. create a rectangle composed of two triangles). Mathematics Foundation 5: Measurement Early learners develop foundational skills in learning to understand concepts of time and measurement comparisons. M5.1: Understand concept of time Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Cooperate with a routine Follow a daily schedule Follow steps in a simple routine Understand time limit cue Know daily concepts of earlier and later, morning and afternoon Understand transition from one activity to the next Tell what activity comes before and after Kindergarten Standard K.M.2: Understand concepts of time, including: morning, afternoon, evening, today, yesterday, tomorrow, day, week, month, and year. Understand that clocks and calendars are tools that measure time. M5.2: Understand measurement through description and comparison Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Explore objects with different shapes and sizes Use any basic measurement word or gesture to express measureable attributes, such as big/little, hot/cold Sort objects into two categories based on attributes Directly compare and describe two objects with a measurable attribute Directly compare and describe two or more objects with a measurable attribute Explore measurement using nonstandard tools Measure length and volume (capacity) using non-standard measurement tools Measure length and volume (capacity) using a standard measurement tool Begin to understand that different size containers hold more or less 18 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Kindergarten Standard K.M.1: Make direct comparisons of the length, capacity, weight, and temperature of objects, and recognize which object is shorter, longer, taller, lighter, heavier, warmer, cooler, or holds more. Social Emotional Skills The importance of healthy social emotional development in the first five years cannot be overstated as this area emphasizes many skills that are essential for success in school and life. Emotional well-being and early childhood mental health have two inter-related components: the attainment of emotional and behavioral regulation and the capacity for positive relationships. As these capacities develop, according to age appropriate expectations, children are also able to learn and function in other domains and content areas. As may occur in any area of development, growth does not always go smoothly. Temperament, developmental issues, typical stressors, mental health concerns, and the environment in which a child lives impact his or her social emotional growth. Some children live in extremely adverse environments where experiences of toxic stress, abuse, and deprivation may have a detrimental impact on their social emotional development. It then becomes the role of the early childhood learning community to provide support and specialized help for these children. A young child’s social competence is a vital part of development. Social competence is related to learning about others and their cultures and having the inclination to seek out or enjoy the company of others. The quality of a young child’s social competence can be a predictor of later social and academic competence (Pellegrini & Glickman, 1990). Success in the core social emotional skills of self-regulation and pro-social behaviors, along with nurturing and satisfying relationships, leads children to a positive sense of self. This is vital for future success in school and in life. 19 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Social Emotional Foundations Social Emotional Foundation 1: Sense of Self Early learners develop foundational skills that support self-awareness, confidence, and the identification and expression of emotions. Social Emotional Foundation 2: Self-Regulation Early learners develop foundational skills that support executive functions including impulse control, planning skills, and emotional regulation. Social Emotional Foundation 3: Conflict Resolution Early learners develop foundational skills that support conflict resolution. Social Emotional Foundation 4: Building Relationships Early learners develop foundational skills that support social development and engagement with others. Guide to Using the Foundations Each foundation has been broken down into topics. Each topic has particular concepts or skills that serve as indicators of a child’s developmental progress through the age ranges. While the indicators articulate expectations for early learning, they are not exhaustive and do not prescribe a singular pathway of helping children arrive at developmental milestones. To assist with the navigation of this document, a model of the format is outlined below. Foundation: The essential concepts and skills early learners should know or demonstrate in a particular developmental area. TOPIC: A subcategory of essential concepts and skills early learners should know and/or demonstrate under a particular foundation. Age Range: Infant, Younger Toddler, Older Toddler, Younger Preschool, Older Preschool While age ranges have been identified for organizational purposes, it is essential to remember every child develops at his/her own pace and may obtain a goal outside of the recommended time frame. Indicators: Competencies, concepts, skills, and/or actions that show a child is progressing toward Kindergarten readiness. Utilizing current research and knowledge of early learning and development, work groups across Indiana generated the indicators. The indicators are not an exhaustive list, but rather a guide to demonstrate the progression of essential competencies. Children will exhibit various skills that indicate their acquisition of a particular competency. 20 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Kindergarten Standard Indiana Academic Standard for Kindergarten: Outlines what a child should know at the end of Kindergarten. Social Emotional Foundation 1: Sense of Self Early learners develop foundational skills that support self-awareness, confidence, and the identification and expression of emotions. SE1.1: Demonstrate self awareness and confidence Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Respond to own name Identify image of self Use gestures and actions to reference self in conversation Recognize self as a unique individual Identify self as a unique member of a group that fits into a larger world picture Demonstrate use of personal pronouns Describe personal characteristics Show sense of self satisfaction with own abilities and preferences Show sense of self satisfaction with own abilities, preferences, and accomplishments Say own name Show interest in environmental choices Show knowledge of own abilities Communicate to indicate physical and emotional needs Begin to show independence by occasionally resisting adult control Kindergarten Standard Show confidence in a range of abilities and the capacity to take on and accomplish new tasks Show independence in own choices SE1.2: Demonstrate identification and expression of emotions Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Communicate to express pleasure or displeasure Communicate feelings and emotions Express both positive and negative feelings about participating in activities Recognize own emotions and the emotions of others Identify own emotions and the emotions of others Use cues to signal overstimulation Express emotion toward a familiar person Observe a peer’s emotion and approach a familiar adult to communicate concern Look to adults for emotional support and guidance Express and accurately respond to emotions of self and others Respond positively to adults who provide comfort Imitate comforting behaviors of caregivers Demonstrate empathy to another child Use sounds and body to express feelings Use sounds, gestures, and actions to express feelings Begin to use words to express feelings 21 Predict reactions from others Use a combination of words, phrases, and actions to express feelings The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Effectively use sentences and actions to express feelings Kindergarten Standard Social Emotional Foundation 2: Self-Regulation Early learners develop foundational skills that support executive functions including impulse control, planning skills, and emotional regulation. SE2.1: Demonstrate self control Infant Younger Toddler Develop an awareness of transitions, schedules, and routines with adult prompts Older Toddler Follow simple routines with adult support Develop selfsoothing when an adult provides comfort techniques Self-soothe with minimal adult support Self-soothe independently Express desires and feelings by using gestures and actions Demonstrate the beginnings of impulse control with adult support Regulate some impulses with adult support Younger Preschool Older Preschool Manage transitions and adapt to changes in schedules, routines, and situations with adult support Manage transitions and adapt to changes in schedules, routines, and situations independently Kindergarten Standard Regulate own emotions and behaviors with others with adult support when needed Regulate a range of impulses with adult support Regulate a range of impulses Social Emotional Foundation 3: Conflict Resolution Early learners develop foundational skills that support conflict resolution. SE3.1: Demonstrate conflict resolution Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Show awareness of possible conflict by demonstrating distress Engage in conflict with peers regarding possession of items Engage in simple conflict resolution strategies with adult support Negotiate to resolve social conflicts with peers with modeling and support Independently initiate conflict resolution strategies with peers and seek adult support when necessary Begin to use language skills instead of physical force to resolve conflicts Use words during a conflict instead of physical force Imitate how others solve conflicts Experiment with trial and error approaches to solve simple problems and conflicts 22 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Kindergarten Standard Social Emotional Foundation 4: Building Relationships Early learners develop foundational skills that support social development and engagement with others. SE4.1: Demonstrate relationship skills Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Engage in simple social interactions with adults Engage in social interactions with familiar adults Stay connected with familiar adults Request and accept guidance from familiar adults Exhibit caution of unfamiliar adults Show feelings of security with familiar adults Separate from familiar adults in a familiar setting with minimal distress Show affection to familiar adults and peers using more complex words and actions Use key adults as a secure base when exploring the environment Seek adult assistance with challenges, but may refuse help and may say no Ask for adult assistance when having difficulty in a social situation Use social referencing when encountering new experiences Accept compromises when suggested by a peer or adult Gauge response based on the facial expressions of others Notice other children in their environment Observe friendship skills in the environments Imitate and model friendship skills Exhibit age appropriate friendship skills to engage in effective play and learning experiences Maintain consistent friendships Engage in onlooker play Engage in solitary play Engage in parallel play Engage in associative play Begin to exhibit skills in solitary play Begin to exhibit skills in parallel play Begin to exhibit skills in associative play Participate in cooperative play experiences with some adult guidance Engage in cooperative play experiences for sustained periods of time 23 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Kindergarten Standard Approaches to Play and Learning “Play is the work of the child.” Maria Montessori Approaches to play and learning address the development of executive functions, such as initiative, persistence, and flexible thinking. These attitudes toward learning show how children learn, not just what they learn (New Jersey, 2014). Research indicates children with higher levels of attentiveness, persistence to a task, eagerness to learn, and flexible thinking skills are more successful in literacy and math (Conn-Powers, 2006; McCelland, Acock, & Morrison, 2006). The healthy development of executive functions is directly related to a child’s social emotional development. The development of executive functions, including impulse control, planning, and the ability to focus, is predictive of future academic and life success. Executive function skills are closely impacted by a secure attachment with one’s family and caregivers. Positive relationships with caring adults and peers provide children with a safe base from which to learn and grow. With a strong cultural focus on academic achievement, it is essential that early childhood environments respect that young children learn through play. Play is not the opposite of academic development, but rather an appropriate way for a child to arrive at desired learning outcomes. For children, play is at the heart of early understandings about the world around them (Neil, Drew, & Bush, 2014). When children are given time and support to deeply engage in learning experiences, they more easily master new skills, making rewards and other incentives to learn and behave unnecessary (New Jersey, 2014). Adults foster the development of executive function skills through providing opportunities for engaging play experiences. Carefully planned environments with purposefully selected materials help children become motivated, selfdirected learners. In-depth play experiences develop and strengthen the child’s ability to make choices ultimately leading to independent decision making in other areas of life. 24 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Approaches to Play and Learning Foundations Approaches to Play and Learning Foundation 1: Initiative and Exploration Early learners develop foundational skills that support initiative, self-direction, interest, and curiosity as a learner. Approaches to Play and Learning Foundation 2: Flexible Thinking Early learners develop foundational skills that support flexible thinking and social interactions during play. Approaches to Play and Learning Foundation 3: Attentiveness and Persistence Early learners develop foundational skills that support focus and attention to a specific activity and persistence to complete a task. Approaches to Play and Learning Foundation 4: Social Interactions Early learners develop foundational skills that support the engagement in imaginative and cooperative play with others. Guide to Using the Foundations Each foundation has been broken down into topics. Each topic has particular concepts or skills that serve as indicators of a child’s developmental progress through the age ranges. While the indicators articulate expectations for early learning, they are not exhaustive and do not prescribe a singular pathway of helping children arrive at developmental milestones. To assist with the navigation of this document, a model of the format is outlined below. Foundation: The essential concepts and skills early learners should know or demonstrate in a particular developmental area. TOPIC: A subcategory of essential concepts and skills early learners should know and/or demonstrate under a particular foundation. Age Range: Infant, Younger Toddler, Older Toddler, Younger Preschool, Older Preschool While age ranges have been identified for organizational purposes, it is essential to remember every child develops at his/her own pace and may obtain a goal outside of the recommended time frame. Indicators: Competencies, concepts, skills, and/or actions that show a child is progressing toward Kindergarten readiness. Utilizing current research and knowledge of early learning and development, work groups across Indiana generated the indicators. The indicators are not an exhaustive list, but rather a guide to demonstrate the progression of essential competencies. Children will exhibit various skills that indicate their acquisition of a particular competency. 25 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Kindergarten Standard Indiana Academic Standard for Kindergarten: Outlines what a child should know at the end of Kindergarten. Approaches to Play and Learning Foundation 1: Initiative and Exploration Early learners develop foundational skills that support initiative, self-direction, interest, and curiosity as a learner. APL1.1: Demonstrate initiative and self-direction Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Respond to a stimulating environment Show interest in what others are doing At times, initiate a new task Initiate new tasks by self Take initiative to learn new concepts and try new experiences Select desired object from several options Independently select and use materials With support, use a variety of resources to explore materials and ideas Seek and gather new information to plan for projects and activities Show curiosity/interest in surroundings Show eagerness and delight in self, others, and surroundings Verbally express a desire to complete task by self Begin to show curiosity/interest in new objects, experiences, and people Kindergarten Standard Explore and manipulate familiar objects in new and imaginative ways APL1.2: Demonstrate interest and curiosity as a learner Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Show budding interest in how objects work Ask questions about familiar objects, people, and experiences Ask questions about novel objects, people, and experiences Try a variety of approaches to get desired outcomes Begin to show curiosity and interest in new objects, experiences, and people Demonstrate enthusiasm for new learning (may be within familiar contexts) Physically explore new ways to use objects and observe results Explore and manipulate familiar objects in the environment Use active exploration to solve a problem 26 Younger Preschool Older Preschool Demonstrate eagerness to learn about and discuss new topics, ideas, and tasks Communicate a desire to learn new concepts or ideas Exhibit willingness to try new experiences Use a variety of learning approaches, such as observing, imitating, asking questions, hands-on investigation, and active exploration The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Kindergarten Standard Approaches to Play and Learning Foundation 2: Flexible Thinking Early learners develop foundational skills that support flexible thinking and social interactions during play. APL2.1: Demonstrate development of flexible thinking skills during play Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Manipulate objects Use objects for real or imagined purposes Substitute one object for another in pretend play or pretend with objects that may or may not be present Find a creative or inventive way of doing a familiar task or solving a problem with adult guidance Show creativity, inventiveness, and flexibility in approach to play with adult guidance Begin to demonstrate flexibility in approach to play and learning Imitate actions Adjust approach to task to resolve difficulties with adult support Older Preschool Kindergarten Standard Demonstrate inventiveness, imagination, and creativity to solve a problem Develop recovery skills from setbacks and differences in opinion in a group setting Approaches to Play and Learning Foundation 3: Attentiveness and Persistence Early learners develop foundational skills that support focus and attention to a specific activity and persistence to complete a task. APL3.1: Demonstrate development of sustained attention and persistence Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Examine objects for brief periods of time Jointly attend to books for several minutes Attend to a book for longer periods of time (jointly or independently) Independently attend to a book from beginning to end Express discomfort when needs are not met Repeat actions to make something happen again Engage and persist with an activity, toy, or object, but is easily distracted Engage for longer periods of time when trying to work through tasks Focus on an activity for short periods of time despite distractions Repeat an activity many times in order to master it, even if setbacks occur Older Preschool Demonstrate ability to delay gratification for short periods of time Focus on an activity with deliberate concentration despite distractions and/or temptations See an activity through to completion Carry out tasks, activity, project, or transition, even when frustrated or challenged, with minimal distress Persist in trying to complete a task after previous attempts have failed 27 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Kindergarten Standard Approaches to Play and Learning Foundation 4: Social Interactions Early learners develop foundational skills that support the engagement in imaginative and cooperative play with others. APL4.1: Demonstrate development of social interactions during play Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Engage in onlooker play Engage in solitary play Engage in parallel play Engage in associative play Begin to exhibit skills in solitary play Begin to exhibit skills in parallel play Begin to exhibit skills in associative play Participate in cooperative play activities with some adult guidance Interact with peers in complex pretend play, including planning, coordination of roles, and cooperation Show interest in children who are playing nearby Show preference for certain peers over time although these preferences may shift Participate in play activities with a small group of children for short periods of time Participate in play activities with a small group of children 28 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Demonstrate cooperative behavior in interactions with others Begin to accept and share leadership Kindergarten Standard Science “The exploration of the natural world is the stuff of childhood. Science, when viewed as a process of constructing understanding and developing ideas, is a natural focus of an early childhood program. As children are given opportunities to engage in inquiry of phenomena, they develop many cognitive skills. It is also the context in which children can develop and practice many basic skills of literacy and mathematics. Finally, science is a collaborative endeavor in which working together and discussing ideas are central to the practice.” Worth, 2010 Infants and young children are natural scientists. Guidance and structure expands their curiosity and activities into something more scientific –to practice science. The goal of science curricula should be to help children understand the natural world through a process known as scientific inquiry. As children investigate, they acquire knowledge that explains the world around them, for instance, why snow or ice melts. Scientific knowledge helps us predict what might happen, helps us solve problems, and creates expanded technologies to serve our needs. Worth and Grollman (2003) introduced a simple inquiry learning cycle to guide early childhood educators as they facilitate children’s investigations. This cycle begins with providing extended periods of time for children to engage and explore selected phenomena and materials. Through discovery and wonder, children share ideas and raise questions. This process leads children to describe characteristics, identify patterns, and record observations using words, pictures, charts, and graphs. The cycle then extends to a more facilitated state as questions are identified that might be investigated further. Beginning at birth, children use all of their senses in their efforts to understand and organize their environment and experiences. Through firsthand, spontaneous interactions with materials, processes, and other people, babies gradually begin to formulate an understanding of what the world is and how it works. This understanding will change over and over as the young child uses evidence gained from experiences much like the scientist supports or disproves a theory. 29 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Science Foundations Science Foundation 1: Physical Science Early learners develop foundational skills in learning and understanding the properties of objects and changes in the physical world. Science Foundation 2: Earth and Space Science Early learners develop foundational skills in learning and understanding the natural world through exploration of Earth, sky, weather, and seasons. Science Foundation 3: Life Science Early learners develop foundational skills in learning and understanding the presence and characteristics of living creatures and plants. Science Foundation 4: Engineering Early learners develop foundational skills in learning and understanding how to solve problems using the engineering design process. Science Foundation 5: Scientific Inquiry and Methods Early learners develop foundational skills in learning and understanding about the world around them through exploration and investigation. Guide to Using the Foundations Each foundation has been broken down into topics. Each topic has particular concepts or skills that serve as indicators of a child’s developmental progress through the age ranges. While the indicators articulate expectations for early learning, they are not exhaustive and do not prescribe a singular pathway of helping children arrive at developmental milestones. To assist with the navigation of this document, a model of the format is outlined below. Foundation: The essential concepts and skills early learners should know or demonstrate in a particular developmental area. TOPIC: A subcategory of essential concepts and skills early learners should know and/or demonstrate under a particular foundation. Age Range: Infant, Younger Toddler, Older Toddler, Younger Preschool, Older Preschool While age ranges have been identified for organizational purposes, it is essential to remember every child develops at his/her own pace and may obtain a goal outside of the recommended time frame. Indicators: Competencies, concepts, skills, and/or actions that show a child is progressing toward Kindergarten readiness. Utilizing current research and knowledge of early learning and development, work groups across Indiana generated the indicators. The indicators are not an exhaustive list, but rather a guide to demonstrate the progression of essential competencies. Children will exhibit various skills that indicate their acquisition of a particular competency. 30 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Kindergarten Standard Indiana Academic Standard for Kindergarten: Outlines what a child should know at the end of Kindergarten. Science Foundation 1: Physical Science Early learners develop foundational skills in learning and understanding the properties of objects and changes in the physical world. SC1.1: Demonstrate ability to explore objects in the physical world Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Observe and experience the environment using all five senses Notice and react to cause and effect within the physical environment Use simple words to describe sensory experiences, objects, and how objects move Use senses to learn about concepts of weight, motion, and force Use senses to describe concepts of weight, motion, and force Use tools to explore the physical environment Identify and solve problems in the environment through active exploration Ask questions about physical properties and changes in the physical world Ask questions and draw conclusions about physical properties and the physical world React to changes in light Focus attention on sounds, movement, and objects Kindergarten Standard K.1.1: Use all senses as appropriate to observe, sort and describe objects according to their composition and physical properties, such as size, color and shape. Explain these choices to others and generate questions about the objects. SC1.2: Demonstrate awareness of the physical properties of objects Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Begin to identify physical attributes of objects Describe physical properties using simple words Notice cause and effect within the physical environment Imitate the actions of others as they explore objects Perform actions with objects and observe results Copy patterns and rhythms with objects 31 Younger Preschool Older Preschool Identify materials that make up objects Investigate and describe observable properties of objects Use evidence from investigations to describe observable properties of objects Match objects by physical attributes Sort objects into categories based on physical attributes and explain reasoning The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Kindergarten Standard K.1.2: Identify and explain possible uses for an object based on its properties and compare these uses with other students’ ideas. Science Foundation 2: Earth and Space Science Early learners develop foundational skills in learning and understanding the natural world through exploration of Earth, sky, weather, and seasons. SC2.1: Recognize the characteristics of Earth and sky Infant Younger Toddler Establish activity patterns based on day and night Explore and react to different indoor and outdoor surfaces Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Notice own shadow Notice the shadows of others and objects Notice and gesture to different objects in the sky Name objects in the sky Describe different objects in the sky Describe how shadows change through the day Explore the natural environment Use tools to explore various earth materials Describe various earth materials Describe typical day and night activities Classify various earth materials Kindergarten Standard K.2.1: Observe and record during sunny days when the sun shines on different parts of the school building. K.2.2: Describe and compare objects seen in the night and day sky. Describe how the Earth’s surface is made up of different materials SC2.2: Recognize seasonal and weather related changes Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Observe and experience the difference in climate/weather Observe and investigate environment, nature, and climate/weather Communicate awareness that the environment, weather, and seasons change Name different kinds of weather 32 Younger Preschool Older Preschool Communicate awareness of seasonal changes Describe weather conditions using correct terminology The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Describe how weather changes Kindergarten Standard K.2.3: Describe in words and pictures the changes in weather from month to month and season to season. Science Foundation 3: Life Science Early learners develop foundational skills in learning and understanding the presence and characteristics of living creatures and plants. SC3.1: Demonstrate awareness of life Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Demonstrate interest in and interact with plants, animals, and people Identify living organisms by name Name characteristics of living organisms Identify the correct names for adult and baby animals Differentiate animals from plants Compare attributes of living organisms Discriminate between living organisms and non-living objects Ask questions and conduct investigations to understand life science Discover body parts Name basic body parts Name more complex body parts Identify and describe the function of body parts Kindergarten Standard K.3.1: Observe and draw physical features of common plants and animals. K.3.2: Describe and compare living animals in terms of shape, texture of body covering, size, weight, color and the way they move. K.3.3: Describe and compare living plants in terms of growth, parts, shape, size, color and texture. Science Foundation 4: Engineering Early learners develop foundational skills in learning and understanding how to solve problems using the engineering design process. SC4.1: Demonstrate engineering design skills Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Demonstrate an interest in human made objects Test limits of the environment Use tools to serve a purpose or solve a problem Identify a problem or need and create a plan to solve Select materials and implement a designated plan Notice whether the solution was successful Explore and manipulate human made objects 33 Begin to construct and deconstruct using readily available materials Use complex motions to play with simple machines Evaluate and communicate solution outcomes Use classroom objects that function as simple machines to enhance play The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Use classroom objects to create simple machines to enhance play Kindergarten Standard Science Foundation 5: Scientific Inquiry and Method Early learners develop foundational skills in learning and understanding about the world around them through exploration and investigation. SC5.1: Demonstrate scientific curiosity Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Observe and show interest in objects, organisms, and events in the environment Demonstrate curiosity Demonstrate curiosity and ask for more information Observe with a focus on details Discuss ways that people can affect the environment in positive and negative ways Use tools to explore the environment Use simple tools to extend investigations Independently use simple tools to conduct an investigation to increase understanding Identify self and/or own actions as scientific Engage in a scientific experiment with peers Actively explore the environment Repeat actions that causes an interesting effect 34 Solve problems using trial and error The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Communicate results of an investigation Kindergarten Standard Social Studies The study of people, relationships, and cultures is called social studies. The primary purpose of social studies is to help people develop the ability to make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good as citizens of a culturally diverse, democratic society in an interdependent world. It includes learning about the environment, how people lived in the past, live today, work, get along with others, and becoming a good citizen. Early childhood social studies curricula assist young children in acquiring the foundations of knowledge, attitudes, and skills in social studies. The subject matter for social studies includes history, geography, and civics. These subject matters help children understand their heritage and to increase their participation in our democratic society (Maxim, 2006). Social studies for infants and toddlers helps young children learn through their senses and experiences about physical location (body awareness), physical time, social emotional competence, and personal responsibility. For young children, social studies is a combination of curriculum and instruction that takes into account self-development, appropriate practices, citizenship, democratic principles, and key understandings of the social sciences: history, geography, government, and economics. These concepts are built around the child’s personal experiences and understanding of the relationship between self and others. Young children are beginning to understand how people relate to the Earth, how people change the environment, how weather changes the character of a place, and how one place relates to another through the movement of people, things, and ideas. Through discussion and experiences with stories and older people, young children begin to gain an understanding of the past. Young children must become aware of personal time (usually between 4 and 7 years of age) before understanding historical time. Time understandings should be a major consideration in how historical topics are introduced to young children. 35 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Social Studies Foundations Social Studies Foundation 1: Self Early learners develop foundational skills in learning and understanding the concept of self within the context of their family and community. Social Studies Foundation 2: History and Events Early learners develop foundational skills in learning and understanding the passage of time and the foundations and functions of government. Social Studies Foundation 3: Geography Early learners develop foundational skills in learning and understanding the world in spatial terms and the relationship between society and the environment. Social Studies Foundation 4: Economics Early learners develop foundational skills in learning and understanding the functions of an economy. Social Studies Foundation 5: Citizenship Early learners develop foundational skills in understanding the expected behavior as a citizen in a democratic society. Guide to Using the Foundations Each foundation has been broken down into topics. Each topic has particular concepts or skills that serve as indicators of a child’s developmental progress through the age ranges. While the indicators articulate expectations for early learning, they are not exhaustive and do not prescribe a singular pathway of helping children arrive at developmental milestones. To assist with the navigation of this document, a model of the format is outlined below. Foundation: The essential concepts and skills early learners should know or demonstrate in a particular developmental area. TOPIC: A subcategory of essential concepts and skills early learners should know and/or demonstrate under a particular foundation. Age Range: Infant, Younger Toddler, Older Toddler, Younger Preschool, Older Preschool While age ranges have been identified for organizational purposes, it is essential to remember every child develops at his/her own pace and may obtain a goal outside of the recommended time frame. Indicators: Competencies, concepts, skills, and/or actions that show a child is progressing toward Kindergarten readiness. Utilizing current research and knowledge of early learning and development, work groups across Indiana generated the indicators. The indicators are not an exhaustive list, but rather a guide to demonstrate the progression of essential competencies. Children will exhibit various skills that indicate their acquisition of a particular competency. 36 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Kindergarten Standard Indiana Academic Standard for Kindergarten: Outlines what a child should know at the end of Kindergarten. Social Studies Foundation 1: Self Early learners develop foundational skills in learning and understanding the concept of self within the context of their family and community. SS1.1: Demonstrate development of self Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Kindergarten Standard Respond to celebrations and other cultural events if observed Participate in celebrations and other cultural events if observed Participate in and imitate celebrations and other cultural events for family, peers, and community if observed Participate in and describe own family, community, and cultural celebrations if observed Participate in and describe local, state, and national events and celebrations if observed K.1.2: Identify people, celebrations, commemorations, and holidays as a way of honoring people, heritage, and events. Identify/honor key people in history Engage in onlooker play Begin to demonstrate a sense of belonging to a group by engaging in parallel play Begin to demonstrate a sense of belonging to a group by engaging in associative play Begin to assimilate family, community, and cultural events in cooperative play Assimilate family, community, and cultural cooperative play Begin to separate self from others Begin to notice differences in others Begin to gesture and ask simple questions regarding differences and/or similarities between self and others Use simple phrases to demonstrate an awareness of differences and/or similarities between self and others Build awareness, respect, and acceptance for differences in people and acknowledge connections Show affection and bonds with familiar adults Use simple words to show recognition of family members and familiar adults K.2.4: Give examples of how to be a responsible family member and member of a group. K.3.6: Identify and compare similarities and differences in families, classmates, neighbors and neighborhood, and ethnic and cultural groups. Social Studies Foundation 2: History and Events Early learners develop foundational skills in learning and understanding the passage of time and the foundations and functions of government. SS2.1: Demonstrate awareness of chronological thinking Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Adapt to changes in routine and/or schedule Begin to recognize the sequence of events as part of a daily routine Recognize the sequence of events as part of a daily routine and as it relates to the passage of time Demonstrate an understanding of time in the context of daily experiences and understand that the passage of time can be measured Anticipate events Begin to understand how time is measured 37 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Kindergarten Standard K.1.4: Explain that calendars are used to represent the days of the week and months of the year. Social Studies Foundation 2: History and Events Early learners develop foundational skills in learning and understanding the passage of time and the foundations and functions of government. SS2.2: Demonstrate awareness of historical knowledge Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Kindergarten Standard Respond to stories about time and age Begin to recall information from recent experiences Begin to communicate concepts of time Demonstrate the awareness of change over time K.1.1: Compare children and families of today with those from the past. Younger Preschool Older Preschool Kindergarten Standard Identify leaders and helpers in the home or classroom environment Identify leaders and community helpers at home, school, and in environments K.2.1: Give examples of people who are community helpers and leaders and describe how they help us. Recognize familiar aspects of community or cultural symbols Identify symbolic objects and pictures of local, state, and/or national symbols SS2.3: Demonstrate awareness of the foundations of government Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Begin to recognize familiar aspects of community or cultural symbols K.2.2: Identify and explain that the President of the United States is the leader of our country and that the American flag is a symbol of the United States. SS2.4: Demonstrate awareness of the functions of government Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Kindergarten Standard Demonstrate comfort in familiar routines, objects, and materials Begin to understand and follow basic guidance Begin to demonstrate an understanding of rules Begin to demonstrate an understanding of rules in the home, school environment, and the purposes they serve Demonstrate an understanding of rules in the home, school environment, and the purposes they serve K.2.3: Give examples of classroom and school rules and explain the importance of following these rules to ensure order and safety. Respond to adult guidance about behavior 38 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Social Studies Foundation 3: Geography Early learners develop foundational skills in learning and understanding the world in spatial terms and the relationship between society and the environment. SS3.1: Demonstrate awareness of the world in spatial terms Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Begin to discover use of body and objects in the environment Begin to respond to simple location terms Begin to use simple location terms Identify location, directionality, and spatial relationships Develop concepts and describe location, directionality, and spatial relationships Use a variety of materials to represent familiar objects Experiment with materials to represent objects in play Begin to create simple representations of a familiar physical environment Engage in play where one item represents another Kindergarten Standard K.3.1: Use words related to location, direction and distance, including here/there over/under, left/right, above/below, forward/backward and between. K.3.2: Identify maps and globes as ways of representing Earth and understand the basic difference between a map and globe. SS3.2: Demonstrate awareness of places and regions Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Kindergarten Standard Explore the immediate environment Recognize parts of surroundings Describe the characteristics of home and surroundings Identify and describe prominent features of the classroom, school, neighborhood, and community Use words to describe natural and manmade features of locations Look toward location where familiar objects are stored with the expectation of finding them Know the location of objects and places in familiar environments Begin to learn knowledge of personal and geographic information Become familiar with information about where they live and understand what an address is K.3.4: Identify and describe the address and location of school; understand the importance of an address. Kindergarten Standard K.3.3: Locate and describe places in the school and community. SS3.3: Demonstrate awareness of environment and society Infant 39 Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Show interest in various aspects of the environment Explore characteristics and ask questions about aspects of the environment Begin to understand the relationship between humans and the environment Begin to describe the reciprocal relationship between humans and the environment The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 K.3.7: Recommend ways that people can improve their environment at home, in school, and in the neighborhood. Social Studies Foundation 4: Economics Early learners develop foundational skills in learning and understanding the functions of an economy. SS4.1: Demonstrate awareness of economics Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Demonstrate preference for specific objects and people Communicate desire for objects and/or persons that are in the classroom or home Use props related to buying and selling items during play Begin to understand the purpose of money and concepts of buying and selling through play Imitate familiar roles and routines Communicate wants and needs Recognize various familiar workers in the community Older Preschool Develop an awareness that people work for money in order to provide for basic needs Develop an awareness of the roles of various familiar community helpers/workers Begin to role play different jobs Describe community helpers/workers in terms of tools/equipment they use and services/products they provide Act out adult social roles and occupations Kindergarten Standard K.4.1: Explain that people work to earn money to buy the things they want and need. K.4.2: Identify and describe different kinds of jobs that people do and the tools or equipment used in these jobs. K.4.4: Give examples of work activities that people do at home and at jobs. Social Studies Foundation 5: Citizenship Early learners develop foundational skills in understanding the expected behavior as a citizen in a democratic society. SS5.1: Demonstrate awareness of citizenship Infant Younger Toddler Older Toddler Younger Preschool Older Preschool Observe others carrying out routines and responsibilities and begin to imitate Participate in simple routines with adult support Assist adults with daily routines and responsibilities Demonstrate willingness to work together to accomplish tasks Choose simple daily tasks from a list of classroom jobs Begin to initiate helping tasks Interact with the environment to make needs known 40 Make choices known Identify preferences Demonstrate an understanding of how voting works The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Identify simple tasks within the home, early childhood setting, or community Provide leadership in completing daily tasks Demonstrate an understanding of the outcome of a vote Kindergarten Standard Creative Arts “Studies have shown that arts teaching and learning can increase student’s cognitive and social development. The arts can be a critical link for students in developing the crucial thinking skills and motivations to achieve at higher levels.” Deasy & Stevenson, 2002 The purpose of including creative arts in early childhood education is to provide a range of activities for children to creatively express themselves. These activities can include, but are not limited to, music, art, creative movement, and drama. Creative arts engage children’s minds, bodies, and senses. The arts invite children to listen, observe, discuss, move, solve problems, and imagine using multiple modes of thought and self-expression. Fine arts curricula provide ways for young children to represent their acquisition and use of skills in other content areas, such as literacy, math, social studies, science, social skills, and creative thinking. Music is natural, spontaneous, and fun for young children. Music moves children emotionally and physically, just as it does with adults. Music helps set a mood. When an adult coos, sings, and plays rhythm games with the child, the adult becomes more sensitive to the child and affection is strengthened. Whether trying to capture the attention of the child or soothing the child’s upset state, music can be rewarding for the child and the adult. Because music involves seeing, hearing, moving, and feeling, it helps the child prepare for more challenging tasks like learning language. Art should be integrated into all preschool curricula. Art materials that are appropriate to the developmental level of the child promote curiosity, verbal and nonverbal expression, reading, math, physical development, social emotional skills, and self-help skills. It is recommended that adults provide art experiences that are open-ended, process-oriented, and allow children to be creative and individualized in their artwork. The adult needs a wholesome, accepting attitude toward the use of creative and artistic materials rather than thinking of art materials as a waste of time or messy. Adults sometimes wonder if coloring books, patterns, and pre-cut models are appropriate art experiences for young children. These materials are not recommended as a means for providing art experiences. They are often frustrating to toddler and preschool aged children who do not have the manual dexterity or eye-hand coordination to stay within the lines, to cut along the lines, or to reproduce a picture made by an adult. Children like to draw or make things as they see them. Adults should rely on experiences that allow children to be creative and individualized in their artwork. 41 The Foundations Indiana’s Early Learning Development Framework 2015 Creative Arts Foundations Creative Arts Foundation 1: Music Early learners develop foundational skills that support creative expression through voice, instruments, and objects. Creative Arts Foundation 2: Dance Early learners develop foundational skills that support creative expression through movement. Creative Arts Foundation 3: Visual Arts Early learners develop foundational skills that support creative expression through the process, production, and appreciation of visual art forms. Creative Arts Foundation 4: Dramatic Play Early learners develop foundational skills that support creative expression through dramatic play. Guide to Using the Foundations Each foundation has been broken down into topics. Each topic has particular concepts or skills that serve as indicators of a child’s developmental progress through the age ranges. While the indicators articulate expectations for early learning, they are not exhaustive and do not prescribe a singular pathway of helping children arrive at developmental milestones. To assist with the navigation of this document, a model of the format is outlined below. Foundation: The essential concepts and skills early learners should know or demonstrate in a particular developmental area. TOPIC: A subcategory of essential concepts and skills early learners should know and/or demonstrate under a particular foundation. Age Range: Infant, Younger Toddler, Older Toddler, Younger Preschool, Older Preschool While age ranges have been identified for organizational purposes, it is essential to remember every child develops at his/her own pace and may obtain a g…