CUR535 Problems Faced by Students with Visual Impairment Research Proposal
Running head: PROBLEMS FACED BY STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENT Problem Identification Problems Faced by Students with Visual Impairment David Johnson III 23 March 2019 PROBLEMS FACED BY STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENT 1 Problem Identification: Problems Faced by Students with Visual Impairment Introduction Every teacher desires to place a student in an environment where he or she can gain a lot from the teaching. Teachers face challenges dealing with students that have a visual impairment. That is because teachers are required to consider the difficulties faced by visually impaired students before making important decisions. For instance, most teachers do not have any experience of dealing with students that use braille. Most schools ignore the fact that they should make sure that they have a teacher who is skilled in teaching braille so that he or she can offer assistance to the regular ed teacher (Gabbert, 2019). That implies that there should be a close working connection among all teacher to ensure that such happens. For such to happen, much hard work has to be involved. Problem Statement The problem is accommodations and modifications of visually impaired students are not being implemented effectively by the regular classroom teachers. Upon narrowing of the problem, an intervention should and will be implemented Problem Description Systems followed by most schools do not ensure that a VI teacher is available throughout the day and thus they try to rush things so that the needs of the students can be met within the limits of the VI teacher. Even though students with a visual impairment may sometime exhibit cognitive delays or fail to, some considerations that should be considered in the learning process may fail to be noticeable (Grancis, 2006). Learning challenges may be realized especially when a child with visual impairment is not capable of learning from what a person sees. This is what PROBLEMS FACED BY STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENT 2 happens in the classroom. Such students are not able to gain both academically and environmentally in a regular ed classroom compared to when such students are with teachers who are trained to bridge such gaps. The regular ed placement is also not sufficient in ensuring that the visually impaired students adapt well on a social level. That makes it quite challenging for students with considerable impairment students to adapt socially in the regular classroom. For instance, some students tend to associate less with students that have low vision or are blind unless a teacher offers some vital support. Even with the teacher`s help, it is not that easy to accomplish social adaptation (Grancis, 2006). The capability of adapting to social life is dependent on the individual. That is because even though some students may take less time to attune, others may take a considerably longer time and hence more patience is required. Some of the difficulties that may be encounter when researching with this issue include the fact that some students who are visually impaired may fail to provide information concerning the level of satisfaction they get in a particular school. Also, some teachers and heads of school may offer biased details regarding the measures that they undertake for ensuring that the visually impaired students gain as much as other students. In additions, the needs of visually impaired students vary from student to student, and hence this has to analyze the challenges faced by each student to avoid coming to a wrong conclusion. One of the reasons why the problem has not been addressed is because most institutions are not aware of the real issues that the visually impaired students are facing. Also, the number of students with such students is relatively low, and hence most teachers tend to ignore the challenges that these students face (Gabbert, 2019). As such, the rationale behind the selection of action research for addressing this issue involves the identification of the problems that the PROBLEMS FACED BY STUDENTS WITH VISUAL IMPAIRMENT 3 visually impaired students face in a regular school and development of effective strategies of addressing those particular challenges. Furthermore, I picked the topic because I have always desired to help classmates that had the problems of low vision in the classroom. I relate to the topic since my cousin experienced the same situation, and hence I understand the real issues that these students face. I am also in a motivational club, and thus I influence this topic by encouraging visually impaired students in dealing with their problems as well as encouraging others to associate well with them. By undertaking this action research, I plan to inform the institutions and the public concerning the problems that visually impaired students face and the practical strategies that can be undertaken in ensuring that these problems are addressed. REFERENCES Gabbert, C. (2019). Inclusion Strategies for Mainstreamed Classrooms. Bright Hub Education Grancis, G. (2006). Teaching Students with Special Needs in Inclusive Settings. Pearson Education Canada Inc. Content Area of Focus: Problem Statement and Description Feedback Problem Statement: The Area of Focus statement needs to be very specific and detailed; not general and broad. While your Area of Focus section is connected to your Purpose Statement, it needs to describe the problem in greater detail and really address the crux of your research concentration. For example, you discuss implementing appropriate strategies, but do not specify what those possible strategies are or involve. This would significantly strengthen your work. Begins with: “The problem is…” Is clear and focused Involves teaching and learning Addresses a problem you have the ability to personally influence Is something he/she feels passionate about Reads as an “if/then” statement Problem Description: Describes problem statement in greater detail Includes possible difficulties that may be encountered Includes reasons why problem has not been addressed Includes rationale for selecting action research to address the problem Purpose of Project Feedback Writer identifies what he/she expects to accomplish and gives direction to the project. Writer outlines project vision and goals. You have clearly and concisely articulated the vision and goals you hold for this research project. Writer’s Role Feedback Writer explains why he/she selected this topic. Writer describes how he/she relates to the topic. Writer describes how this topic influences or is influenced by his/her current role or setting. You did a very good job of explaining why you have selected this topic and how it relates to you and your students. Higher-Order Thinking Feedback Writer compares, contrasts, and integrates theory and subject matter with work environment or experience. At an appropriate level, the writer analyzes and synthesizes theory and practice to develop new ideas and ways of conceptualizing and performing. Your work on this Section One was fairly general and would be strengthened by providing your reading audience with more (or deeper) specific information about contemporary theory and practice related to your topic. Organization Theme and Structure Feedback Central theme or purpose is immediately clear This paper shows a clear and logical order and is easy to follow and understand. Structure is clear, logical, and easy to follow Subsequent sections develop and support the central theme Style and Mechanics Format Feedback Adheres to APA guidelines Citations and reference page follow APA guidelines Ideas and info from other sources are properly cited Proposal is well organized and displays attention to detail Your paper adheres to APA guidelines, but really does not contain any substantive information from resource materials that would help to substantiate some of your assertions. Grammar, Punctuation, and Spelling Feedback Appropriate grammar, usage, and punctuation are evident Spelling is correct Your writing mechanics are good. I noted some minor items that you should consider in your future writing. Readability and Style Feedback Sentences are complete, clear, and concise Sentences are well-constructed with consistently strong, varied structure Transitions between sentences, paragraphs, and sections help maintain the flow of thought Words used are precise and unambiguous The tone is appropriate to the audience, content, and assignment Your writing style is clear and solid, and the tone is appropriate. Comments and Grade Comments You did a good job on this assignment, overall. Grade 4.35 / 5 Johnson III 1 Name David Johnson Course CUR 535 Professor Dr. Wittenberg March 26, 2019 Graphical representation of the research questions and methods of collection of data Research question: Is the education offered to VI students adequate for them to adapt to their social and academic environments? Data collection strategy 1: Conduction of in-depth interviews on the VI students will provide the data required to determine the satisfaction level of the education offered. Data collection strategy 2: Carrying out focused group discussions with the VI and regular students in separate sessions will help determine the factors that hinder the social and academic life development of the VI students. Data collection strategy 3: Administering structured questionnaires for both groups of students will help determine what needs to be done in order to make the education of the VI students more satisfactory. Baseline data: This data is provides future targets for the study and helps estimate expected changes. The academic performance of the VI students over the past 1 year. The number of friends VI students have among the regular students. Running Head: PROBLEM DOCUMENTATION AND LITERATURE REVIEW Problem Documentation and Literature Review Name Instructor Institutional Affiliation Date 1 PROBLEM DOCUMENTATION AND LITERATURE REVIEW 2 Problems Faced by Students with Visual Impairment Problem documentation Current evidence indicates that students with visual impairment face numerous challenges which continue to affect their academic outcome. To be able to identify these problems, a critical review of current peer-reviewed published literature will be highlighted. The evidence from peer-reviewed will be supported by a survey result from a list of 50 visually impaired university students and 50 university lecturers. Visually impaired students and lecturers will be the groups of focus for this study because they first, visually impaired students have firsthand account of the problems/challenges they face on a day-to-day basis. On the other hand, the university lecturer is associated with these students. Therefore, they understand them better. Research Question 1. What are the significant challenges faced by students with visual impairment? Much literature has been written on the various problems that students with visual impairment usually encounter. It is evident from the problem definition that indeed students with visual impairment usually face numerous problems in their journey of education. As highlighted in the problem definition, students with a visual impairment may fail to provide information regarding the level of their satisfaction within the school and in the class environment. Moreover, some teachers and heads of school may offer biased details regarding the measures that they undertake for ensuring that the visually impaired students gain as much as other students. In additions, the needs of visually impaired students vary from student to student, and hence this has to analyze the challenges faced by each student to avoid coming to a wrong conclusion. In this problem documentation, the goal is to review relevant research literature and evaluate the PROBLEM DOCUMENTATION AND LITERATURE REVIEW 3 perspective of various researchers in regards to the problems faced by students with visual impairment. Survey Questions 1. What are some of the problems you face in learning academically? 2. Do you normally face difficulty in making friends? 3. As an individual do you get any institutional support for your visual impairment to help you academically? 4. Are you teachers/tutors/lecturers understand your level of disability and do they make an effort to enhance your learning experience? 5. Do you have access to Braille in your classroom? 6. Do you feel excluded or disengaged from your classmates who are sighted? 7. Are you normally given time extensions during the examination? 8. Do you feel you have the needed resources at your disposal to help you learn adequately as you sighted fellows? 9. Do you receive any government support in regards to your disability? 10. Are you getting encouragement from your peers and teachers as a way of motivating you? Author(s) of the study Fatima, G., Bashir, R., Malik, M., & Safder, M. Title and year of the study Purpose of the study Pertinent findings that support your project Difficulties Faced by Students with Visual Impairment Registered in Open and Distance Learning Programs of AIOU, Islamabad, Pakistan The major purpose of this survey study was to explore difficulties and barriers faced by students with visual impairment. A selfdeveloped and validated questionnaire was employed for data collection from a sample of about 40 students with visual impairment. The major finding revealed that students with visual impairment encountered and continue to encounter problems in orientation, transportation, academics, taking examination, provision of reading materials in Braille, use of information, and taking examination through different modes. (2014) PROBLEM DOCUMENTATION AND LITERATURE REVIEW Salleh, N. M., & Zainal, K. How and why the visually impaired students socially behave the way they do (2010) Majoni, C., & Mashatise, J. Challenges faced by students with blindness studying through open and distance learning (2017) 4 The purpose of this study was discuss the social behaviors of visually impaired students by comparing their level of socializing and discipline in school. It also focused on highlighting the various problems that they encounter within the school environment. The finding of this study is that most of the visually impaired were passive and generally had difficulties in interacting with people. However the study also found that the level of indiscipline among the visually impaired was similar to that of the sighted students. The study proposes a few intervention strategies to help the visually impaired students adapt to their environment and secure peer and community acceptance. This study sought to find out the challenges faced by blind students studying through Open and Distance Learning (ODL) The finding of the study concluded that although open distance learning (ODL) is ideal for blind students or students with visual impairment because they learn at their own pace and in the comfort of their homes. However, the study concluded that regardless of how slow the students can master the art of learning at their own pace; they need PROBLEM DOCUMENTATION AND LITERATURE REVIEW 5 highly trained personnel to assist them. Otyola, W. R., Kibanja, G. M., & Mugagga, A. M. Challenges faced by visually impaired students at Makerere and Kyambogo Universities. (2017). Sahasrabudhe, S., & Palvia, P Academic challenges of blind students and their mitigation strategies. (2013). The purpose of the study was to evaluate and investigate the challenges faced by students with visual impairment in the university. The study employed crosssectional survey design and involved 200 respondents with 50 being visually impaired student, 50 visually impaired teachers, 50 visually sighted students and 50 impaired university administrators The findings of this study revealed that the visually impaired students receive government assistance, extra time during examination, and even oral examination, and buddy support. However, these students experience constrained limitation in the method instruction and assessment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and understand the academic challenges faced by blind and visually impaired students in high school and college, their resolution strategies and the use of technology to aid their study. The study concluded that blind and visually impaired students both in college and high school face numerous challenges when it comes to academic based on the fact that they are either blind or visually impaired. The study noted some of the challenges including the knowledge of their extent of visual disability, knowledge of the Braille, PROBLEM DOCUMENTATION AND LITERATURE REVIEW 6 availability of materials in Braille, availability of alternative formats such as tactile models, availability of human assistance reader/scribe, affordability of the solution technology and perceived use of the solution technology Kerri Janae JohnsonJones Educating Students with Visual Impairments in the General Education Setting (2017) Simon, C., Echeita, G., Sandoval, M., & Lopez, M. (2010) The inclusive educational process of students with visual impairments in Spain: An analysis from the perspective of organizations. The study aimed at examining the experiences of visually impaired students and their teachers about their experiences within general educational setting. The study employed a case study to gather data in a naturalistic setting. All student participants involved in the study were students with visual impairment. The finding of this study revealed four major themes namely acknowledging sense of self, depending on structures of support, desiring a sense of normalcy, and responding to barriers. Visually impaired students reported lack of accessibility, and access to many areas of the general classroom setting, along with the curriculum as some of the most critical challenges they face. The purpose of this study was to highlight the inclusive educational process by understanding the various problems The findings of the study indicates that visually impaired students are exposed to numerous set of challenges both within the school and PROBLEM DOCUMENTATION AND LITERATURE REVIEW (2010) faced by visually impaired students. 7 outside environment. As a result, their educational attainment is affected. The study thus recommends an all-inclusive educational process that highlights the needs of both sighted and visually impaired students within the classroom environment. PROBLEM DOCUMENTATION AND LITERATURE REVIEW 8 References Fatima, G., Bashir, R., Malik, M., & Safder, M. (2014). Difficulties faced by students with visual impairment registered in open and distance learning programs of AIOU, Islamabad, Pakistan. Academic Research International, 5(3), 214. Johnson-Jones, K. J. (2017). Educating students with visual impairments in the general education setting. Majoni, C., & Mashatise, J. (2017). CHALLENGES FACED BY STUDENTS WITH BLINDNESS STUDYING THROUGH OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING. European Journal of Research in Social Sciences Vol, 5(2). Otyola, W. R., Kibanja, G. M., & Mugagga, A. M. (2017). Challenges faced by visually impaired students at Makerere and Kyambogo Universities. Makerere Journal of Higher Education, 9(1), 75-86. Sahasrabudhe, S., & Palvia, P. (2013, August). Academic challenges of blind students and their mitigation strategies. In Proceedings of the Nineteenth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Chicago, Illinois (pp. 15-17). Sahasrabudhe, S., & Palvia, P. (2013, August). Academic challenges of blind students and their mitigation strategies. In Proceedings of the Nineteenth Americas Conference on Information Systems, Chicago, Illinois (pp. 15-17). PROBLEM DOCUMENTATION AND LITERATURE REVIEW 9 Salleh, N. M., & Zainal, K. (2010). How and why the visually impaired students socially behave the way they do. Procedia-social and behavioral sciences, 9, 859-863. Simon, C., Echeita, G., Sandoval, M., & Lopez, M. (2010). The inclusive educational process of students with visual impairments in Spain: An analysis from the perspective of organizations. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 104(9), 565-570. PROBLEM DOCUMENTATION AND LITERATURE REVIEW 10 Content Problem Documentation Feedback Information provided verifies that a problem exists and clarifies the nature of the problem. A 10-item survey with questions or information that would assist the writer with research has been created. The group(s) that will be surveyed are indicated and a brief rationale for surveying each group, the major elements of the problem that writer wants to explore and verify, and 10 questions are included. You identified the existing problem and provided clarification as to its nature. Literature Review Feedback The literature review summarizes all important research relevant to the problem, demonstrating a current understanding of the topic. The literature review includes at least seven literature references. The literature review follows the required format. Your review of the literature summarizes some of the aspects associated with the problem. Your work would be strengthened by providing greater detail with regard to the information in the individual articles/resources. Additionally, it would be good for you to elaborate in your text on the areas of comparison and contrast among the various articles/resources you selected. Research Questions (1 to 3 Questions) Feedback Question aligns to the purpose of the project The research question you identified is rather Question aligns to what the literature review reveals broad, and should be more focused by relating it about the problem directly to the Purpose and your Focus statements. Question is narrowly focused, researchable, and can be answered with data Higher-Order Thinking Feedback Writer compares, contrasts, and integrates theory and subject matter with work environment or experience. At an appropriate level, the writer analyzes and synthesizes theory and practice to develop new ideas and ways of conceptualizing and performing. You have done a good job in summarizing the various references. Your work would be strengthened by connecting the material in those various references in terms of comparing and contrasting current views on the problem. Organization Theme and Structure Feedback Central theme or purpose is immediately clear Your paper is written well, and the central theme of your work is clear and understandable. Structure is clear, logical, and easy to follow Subsequent sections develop and support the central theme PROBLEM DOCUMENTATION AND LITERATURE REVIEW 11 Style and Mechanics Format Feedback Adheres to APA guidelines Your paper adheres to APA guidelines. Citations and reference page follow APA guidelines Ideas and info from other sources are properly cited Proposal is well organized and displays attention to detail Grammar, Punctuation, and Spelling Feedback Appropriate grammar, usage, and punctuation are evident Spelling is correct Your writing mechanics are good. Readability and Style Feedback Sentences are complete, clear, and concise Sentences are well-constructed with consistently strong, varied structure Transitions between sentences, paragraphs, and sections help maintain the flow of thought Words used are precise and unambiguous The tone is appropriate to the audience, content, and assignment The tone of your writing is appropriate, and the paper flows well for the reader. Comments and Grade Comments Overall, a very impressive job on this Section Two assignment. Grade 4.35 / 5 Running Head: SOLUTION STRATEGY Solution Strategy David Johnson 1 SOLUTION STRATEGY 2 Action Goals The action plan selected was to identify the challenges which are faced by the students with visual impairment. Most of the students with visual impairment are facing various challenges while in the learning institution and helping them; then there is the need to collect sufficient information about the specific challenges which they are facing. Collecting of information from the students with visual impairment will ensure that accurate information is collected hence ensuring that when dealing with the problem, the desired outcome of assisting these students will be achieved. The goal of the action plan is to ensure that students with the visual impairment are comfortable while in the learning institutions by coming up with the various ways of helping them to overcome the challenges which they face. By helping them to overcome the challenges while pursuing their studies, they will be able to perform better in their academics. This means that the goal of this action plan is to help the students with visual impairment to improve their academic performance (Botsford, 2013). As a way of collecting the information, the action plan’s goal is that information should be collected by reading various relevant articles which has information about the challenges which are faced by the students with visual impairment. When going to the learning institutions to collect the data from the students with visual impairment and their lecturers who are believed to have relevant information because they interact with them, then various articles should be utilized and thus by the time the researchers will visit the learning institutions to collect more information they will have some information from the reading materials. SOLUTION STRATEGY 3 Selected Solutions To get the desired information while conducting a research, the selected ways of collecting the data are that the researchers will start by visiting the library where they will read through relevant reading materials hence enabling them to collect information about the challenges which are faced by the students with visual impairment. After collecting the information from the reading materials, the next move is to visit the learning institutions whereby those students with visual impairment are interviewed. The students are allowed to explain the challenges which they are facing and how these challenges are affecting their academic performance. By interviewing them, it will enable the researcher to get first-hand information because they will be giving information by explaining their experiences. The other way of collecting information about the challenges which are faced by the students with visual impairment is by interviewing the lecturers. Lecturers are close to the students and thus they know the challenges which they are facing (Bruce, 2002). Also, they are responsible for helping these students to overcome the challenges. So, the decision to interview the lecturers is essential because it will enable the researcher to know the challenges faced by the students from the lecturer’s perspective and how they have assisted them so that they cannot be affected in their studies. Once all the information has been collected, the intervention plan is designed by coming up with a way in which these students can be assisted to overcome the challenges faced while in the learning institutions. Since all the challenges which are faced by these students have been identified, it will be possible to come up with a plan on how they can be assisted. They will be SOLUTION STRATEGY 4 assisted to cope with the challenges which cannot be prevented but for those which can be prevented, then the preventive measures are put in place. When planning to conduct the interview, permission to conduct an interview is requested from the concerned authorities within the learning institution and thus after giving their convenient date, the researchers will visit the institution on that date. They will allocate time to interviewing the students and also they will have me allocated for the interviewing lecturers. It is planned in a way that all students are given time to be interviewed and the time has to be observed so as to ensure that all are interviewed within the stipulated time. Calendar Plan When conducting the research, the first step is to identify the information needed and how to collect that information. The first step, therefore, is to collect the information from the library. The time allocated for visiting the library to collect the information is two weeks. This means that the first two weeks will be spent in the library reading relevant materials which will enable the researcher to collect information from the reading materials. The two weeks allocated are enough to go through various books and compiling the available information. After collecting information from the reading materials, the next step is to collect the information from the students by interviewing them. The day is set when the researchers will visit the learning institution. To interview all the students with visual impairment, it will take two days. This means that two days are allocated for interviewing the students. The third day is meant for interviewing the lecturers. Collecting the information in the learning institution will take three days which means that the whole process of collecting data from the library and conducting an interview in the learning institution will take ten days. SOLUTION STRATEGY 5 Once the data has been collected and presented using various ways of presenting data by the researchers, analysis is done. The analysis is done so as to all the issues which affect the learners with visual impairment based on the reading materials, from the learners’ experience and from the lecturers’ point of view. Comparison is then done and those challenges will be identified and the way to handle them will be identified. Finally, the learners will be assisted to cope with the challenges as they pursue their academic goals. After putting in place measures which will enable the learners to learn without the challenges, evaluation is done regularly so as to identify if the measures put in place are effective. Evaluation should be done twice a year hence ensuring that students with visual impairment are not facing challenges while learning. In conclusion, the research action plan will help the researchers to identify the problems faced by the learners with visual impairment with the aim of helping them. Before identifying the various ways which can be utilized to help them, the problems have to be identified first hence the need to carry out research. The research is carried out in various ways which include reading available materials on the problems faced by these students and also by conducting an interview with the students and their lecturers. When all these methods of collecting data are utilized, the information collected will be accurate because, after collection, they will be compared hence identifying those which are common and hence need immediate attention. SOLUTION STRATEGY 6 References Botsford, K. D. (2013). Social skills for youths with visual impairments: A meta-analysis. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness, 107(6), 497-508. Bruce, S. (2002). Impact of a communication intervention model on teachers’ practice with children who are congenitally deaf-blind. Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness (JVIB), 96(03). Farmer, L. S. (2009). School library media specialist collaboration with special education personnel in support of student learning. Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, 4(2), 37-55. Haegele, J. A., & Porretta, D. (2015). Physical activity and school-age individuals with visual impairments: A literature review. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 32(1), 68-82. Running head: OUTCOMES AND EVALUATION Outcomes and Evaluation David Johnson 1 OUTCOMES AND EVALUATION 2 Outcomes and Evaluation Expected outcomes Through the use of inter-personal education, entrepreneurial education and mobile technology, it is expected that the morale, attitude, and behavior of students will improve. Outcomes are listed below and briefly explained. a. Increased classroom attention Through the use of interprofessional education as recommended by Reeves et al. (2016) and also collaborating with mobile technology as advised by Briz-Ponce et al. (2017) such as apps and games in studies, students appeared more interested in studies than they originally were before these measures were introduced. b. Loyalty to teachers Interprofessional education emphasized by Reeves et al. (2016) enabled students to experience the teaching experience at a new level which made them interact loyally with their teachers. c. Increase in student interaction With the use of mobile technologies, interprofessional education and the introduction of the entrepreneurial spirit in studies, students wanted to learn more and interact with set mobile technologies while being directed properly in understanding how they can turn their studies into a career in the spirit of entrepreneurship. d. Improvement in mathematics and science performance OUTCOMES AND EVALUATION 3 The use of five different teaching approaches by Savelsbergh et al. (2016) to ensure that science and math are taught more innovatively that it initially was enabled students to have a better understanding in those subjects, hence facilitating improvements. e. Improved law and order in the school With more interactive teaching modes such as mobile technologies, interprofessional teaching and the application of innovative teaching ways in the subjects of mathematics and science has increased the desire of students to learn and also necessitated the reduction of absenteeism. With more focus on their studies, students have become orderly, appreciate and strictly follow the school programs. Measurement of outcomes On each of the outcomes, different methods of measurement will be used. First, in measuring the outcome of increased attention in class, questionnaires will be given to all students, and they will have questions addressing whether or not they have become attentive and on a 1 to 10 scale and how they rate their new learning experience. In this case, 1 is the least attentive and interactive while 10 is towards the most interactive and attentive. On the second outcome of teacher loyalty, questionnaires will also be used on the scale of 1 to 10 where 1 is towards students rating whether interpersonal teaching has made them least loyal to their teachers and 10 going towards students being most loyal to their teachers given the new teaching strategy. On the third outcome, increasing student interaction will be done through resetting and redoing one test they did before and checking their new results. When analyzing the previous and OUTCOMES AND EVALUATION 4 current results of the same test done before the introduction of the latest teaching strategies, then it will be easy to assess whether students have interacted better with their studies or not. On the fourth outcome, an improvement on mathematics and science will also be made using regular tests where the results of each student will be analyzed continuously to determine whether or not their scores and grades have improved. On the last outcome, improved law and order in the school will be analyzed using student data on absenteeism sheets and also a collaboration with the teachers in duty to usher in their reports and remarks on indiscipline cases and whether they have reduced or not. Presentation of the findings The findings will be given to the school’s administration which is responsible for rolling out teaching strategies in the presence of all the other stakeholders such as investors, educational officers, teachers, and students. I will first present my research and what it involved, how I collected the data and the outcomes realized which guided the findings. I will then offer the recommendations of the study. Analysis of the results The findings and data collected will guide the analysis where tests and questionnaires used will offer the data. After that, the raw data will be analyzed by assessing the scores and grades reached by students to decipher whether the new strategies put in place are improving the morale, attitude, and impact on student behavior. OUTCOMES AND EVALUATION 5 I would determine if my solution strategy was effective by taking various checks. First, I will check whether the performance of the students has improved. Secondly, I will get insight from teachers and non-teaching staff whether law and order have been restored in the institution or not. Lastly, I will address the students and get insight from them on what they feel towards the new solution strategy introduced. In case the teaching, non-teaching, and students offer positive remarks on the solution strategy, then I will have the determination that it was effective. OUTCOMES AND EVALUATION 6 References Batty, M., Collins, J. M., & Odders‐White, E. (2015). Experimental evidence on the effects of financial education on elementary school students’ knowledge, behavior, and attitudes. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 49(1), 69-96. Blazar, D., & Kraft, M. A. (2017). Teacher and teaching effects on students’ attitudes and behaviors. Educational evaluation and policy analysis, 39(1), 146-170. Briz-Ponce, L., Pereira, A., Carvalho, L., Juanes-Méndez, J. A., & García-Peñalvo, F. J. (2017). Learning with mobile technologies–Students’ behavior. Computers in Human Behavior, 72, 612-620. De Leeuw, A., Valois, P., Ajzen, I., & Schmidt, P. (2015). Using the theory of planned behavior to identify key beliefs underlying pro-environmental behavior in high-school students: Implications for educational interventions. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 42, 128-138. Peterson, E. R., Rubie-Davies, C., Osborne, D., & Sibley, C. (2016). Teachers’ explicit expectations and implicit prejudiced attitudes to educational achievement: Relations with student achievement and the ethnic achievement gap. Learning and Instruction, 42, 123140. Reeves, S., Fletcher, S., Barr, H., Birch, I., Boet, S., Davies, N., … & Kitto, S. (2016). A BEME systematic review of the effects of interprofessional education: BEME Guide No. 39. Medical teacher, 38(7), 656-668. OUTCOMES AND EVALUATION 7 Savelsbergh, E. R., Prins, G. T., Rietbergen, C., Fechner, S., Vaessen, B. E., Draijer, J. M., & Bakker, A. (2016). Effects of innovative science and mathematics teaching on student attitudes and achievement: A meta-analytic study. Educational Research Review, 19, 158-172. Action Research Proposal CUR/535 Version 4 University of Phoenix Material Action Research Proposal Throughout this course, you will create an action research proposal. While not required, the action research proposal could be used to obtain permission from your school or organization to conduct your research. You must create a practical action research proposal using information and data that you collect from your own school or district or from a school or district with which you are familiar. Note: Consider publicly available information from your school, district, or state. You will develop your Action Research Proposal in four sections: Section One: Problem Identification (Due Week 3) ……………………………………………………………….. 1 Section Two: Problem Documentation and Literature Review (Due Week 5) …………………………… 2 Section Three: Solution Strategy (Due Week 6) …………………………………………………………………… 2 Section Four: Outcomes and Evaluation (Due Week 7)…………………………………………………………. 3 Section One: Problem Identification (Due Week 3) Write a 2- to 3-page paper that includes the following information: • Area of focus o Problem statement should: o • begin with: “The problem is…” • be clear and focused • involve teaching and learning • address a problem you have the ability to personally influence • be something you feel passionate about • read as an “if/then” statement Example: • o • The problem is accommodations and modifications of special education students are not being implemented effectively by the regular classroom teachers. Upon narrowing of the problem, an intervention will be implemented. Problem description should: • describe the problem statement in greater detail • include possible difficulties you may encounter • include reasons why the problem has not been addressed • include a rationale for selecting action research to address the problem Purpose of the project o Why you picked this topic and how you relate to it o How this topic influences or is influenced by your role in your current setting o What you expect to accomplish Copyright © 2018 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. 1 Action Research Proposal CUR/535 Version 4 2 Section Two: Problem Documentation and Literature Review (Due Week 5) Write a 2- to 3-page paper that includes the following information: Problem Documentation • Obtain information to verify that a problem exists and to clarify the nature of the problem. • Create a sample 10-item survey with questions or information that would assist you with your research. o Indicate the group(s) that would be surveyed, a brief rationale for surveying each group, the major elements of the problem that you want to explore and verify, and your 10 questions. Note: You are developing a survey, but are not expected to implement it. If you choose to implement your survey, be sure to check with your administrator about any permissions you may need to obtain first. Literature Review • Conduct a literature review summarizing all important research relevant to the problem and demonstrating a current understanding of the topic. o You should include at least 7 sources for your literature review. o Consider peer-reviewed professional journal articles and sources dating no earlier 10 years from the current year o List your literature review in the following format: Author(s) of the study Title and year of the study Purpose of the study Pertinent findings that support your project Research Questions (1–3 questions) • Question(s) should align to the purpose of the project • Question(s) should align to what your literature review reveals about the problem • Question(s) should be narrowly focused, researchable, and can be answered with data Section Three: Solution Strategy (Due Week 6) Write a 2- to 3-page paper that includes the following information: Action goal(s) • Provide the goal(s) for the action plan that you are proposing and include a brief overview of the action plan that you have selected. • Example: o The goal of the action plan is to increase effectiveness of regular classroom teachers in implementing accommodations and modifications for special education students. A three-prong intervention will be implemented to meet the goal, which includes teacher IEP training, teacher/paraprofessional training, and weekly collaboration time supported by the administration. Selected solutions Copyright © 2018 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. Action Research Proposal CUR/535 Version 4 • This is a detailed description of the steps you would take if you were to implement your intervention plan to address or alleviate the problem in your current setting. • This section is analogous to a recipe. It should be specific and detailed so that another researcher can read this section and duplicate the method with few questions. o For example, do not say “Teachers or trainers will take courses on methods to modify instruction for diverse learners.” Rather, give the reader specific information and guidelines on how you will accomplish the goal of this plan, with step-by-step instructions to easily replicate the process. o Incorporate ethical guidelines you may need to consider for your research study. • Include copies of specific material needed in an Appendix, such as consent forms or other materials. Remember you cannot be too specific in this section. 3 Calendar plan • Include a week-by-week, operational calendar plan. o Include specific directions on how you would implement each component of your action research study. • Remember to give the reader the following information: o When the study would begin o Who would be involved o At what points specific aspects of your plan should occur o The duration of each component of your plan o How often and when you would evaluate results Section Four: Outcomes and Evaluation (Due Week 7) Write a 2- to 3-page paper that includes the following information: Expected outcomes • For each action goal you presented in Section Three, provide specific outcomes you hope to see if you were to implement this action research project. • Each goal may have several outcomes; therefore, number each outcome and present it in list form. o The outcomes should be stated in observable, measurable terms. o The outcomes should relate specifically to the documentation you provide. Measurement of outcomes • Describe how you plan to measure each projected outcome. o Be specific about particular instruments and methods you would use. o This information is intended to aid another researcher interested in replicating your study. • Where possible, include copies of tests, questionnaires, or other instruments as an Appendix. Analysis of results • Describe how you plan to analyze your results. • Explain how you would determine if your solution strategy was effective. • Explain how you would present your findings and to whom you will would present them. References Copyright © 2018 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved. Action Research Proposal CUR/535 Version 4 4 • List all sources you used to complete and support your action research proposal. These could be websites, articles, books, or other, but you should have a minimum of 7 peer-reviewed sources listed from your literature review. • Ensure your sources are cited according to APA guidelines throughout, including a reference page. Copyright © 2018 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
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